Human Biology Sylvia S Mader Michael Windelspecht Chapter

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Human Biology Sylvia S. Mader Michael Windelspecht Chapter 5 Cardiovascular System: Heart and Blood

Human Biology Sylvia S. Mader Michael Windelspecht Chapter 5 Cardiovascular System: Heart and Blood Vessels Lecture Outline Part 1 Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1

Cardiovascular System: Heart and Blood Vessels 2

Cardiovascular System: Heart and Blood Vessels 2

Points to ponder • What are the functions of the cardiovascular system? • What

Points to ponder • What are the functions of the cardiovascular system? • What is the anatomy of the heart? Of blood vessels, such as veins and arteries? • How is the heart beat regulated? • What is blood pressure? • What are common cardiovascular diseases and how might you prevent them? 3

5. 1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System What is the cardiovascular system? • It

5. 1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System What is the cardiovascular system? • It includes the _____ and ________. • It brings _____ to cells and helps get rid of ______. • Blood is _____ in the lung, kidneys, intestine, and liver. • ______ vessels help this system by collecting excess fluid surrounding tissues and returning it to the cardiovascular system. 4

5. 1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System What is the cardiovascular system? Copyright ©

5. 1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System What is the cardiovascular system? Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CO 2 Respiratory System tissue cells Cardiovascular System food kidneys liver Digestive System Figure 5. 1 The cardiovascular system and homeostasis. indigestible food residues (feces) Urinary System metabolic wastes (urine) 5

5. 1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System What are the functions of the cardiovascular

5. 1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System What are the functions of the cardiovascular system? 1. Generate ______ 2. Transport _____ 3. Exchange of nutrients and wastes at the _______ 4. Regulate _____ as needed 6

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels What is the main pathway of blood

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels What is the main pathway of blood in the body? • Heart – arteries – arterioles – capillaries – venules – veins – back to the heart… 7

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels Arteries and arterioles • Arteries carry blood

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels Arteries and arterioles • Arteries carry blood _____ the heart. • Their walls have 3 layers. – Thin inner ______ – Thick ______ layer – Outer ______ tissue • _______ are small arteries that regulate blood pressure. 8

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels Capillaries • Microscopic vessels between arterioles and

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels Capillaries • Microscopic vessels between arterioles and venules • Made of ____ of epithelial tissue • Form beds of vessels where _____ with body cells occurs • Combined large _______ 9

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels Capillaries Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies,

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels Capillaries Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. artery connective tissue arteriole a. precapillary sphincter blood flow capillary bed elastic tissue arteriovenous shunt endothelium smooth muscle v. valve venule blood flow vein v. = vein; a. = artery (left): © Ed Reschke; (right): © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers Figure 5. 2 Structure of a capillary bed. 10

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels Veins and venules • ______ are small

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels Veins and venules • ______ are small veins that receive blood from the capillaries. • Venule and vein walls have 3 layers. – Thin inner _____ – Thick _______ layer – Outer ______ tissue • Veins carry blood _____ the heart. • Veins that carry blood against gravity have _______ to keep blood flowing toward the heart. 11

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels How can you tell the difference between

5. 2 The Types of Blood Vessels How can you tell the difference between an artery and vein? Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. artery connective tissue arteriole a. precapillary sphincter blood flow elastic tissue endothelium arteriovenous shunt smooth muscle v. valve venule blood flow vein v. =vein; a. =artery (left): © Ed Reschke Figure 5. 2 Structure of a capillary bed. 12

5. 3 The Heart is a Double Pump Anatomy of the heart • Large,

5. 3 The Heart is a Double Pump Anatomy of the heart • Large, muscular organ consisting of mostly cardiac tissue called the ______ • Surrounded by a sac called the ______ • Consists of 2 sides, right and left, separated by a _______ • Consists of 4 chambers: 2 atria and 2 ventricles • 2 sets of valves: semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves (AV valves) • Valves produce the _____ and _____ sounds of the heartbeat 13

5. 3 The Heart is a Double Pump External anatomy of the heart Copyright

5. 3 The Heart is a Double Pump External anatomy of the heart Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. left subclavian artery left common carotid artery brachiocephalic artery superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery pulmonary trunk left pulmonary veins right pulmonary artery right pulmonary veins left atrium left cardiac vein right atrium right coronary artery left ventricle right ventricle left anterior descending coronary artery inferior vena cava apex Figure 5. 3 The arteries and veins associated with the human heart. 14

5. 3 The Heart is a Double Pump Internal anatomy of the heart Copyright

5. 3 The Heart is a Double Pump Internal anatomy of the heart Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. left subclavian artery left common carotid artery brachiocephalic artery superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery pulmonary trunk left pulmonary veins right pulmonary artery right pulmonary veins semilunar valve left atrium right atrium atrioventricular (bicuspid) valve atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve chordae tendineae papillary muscles right ventricle septum left ventricle inferior vena cava a. Figure 5. 4 a The heart is a double pump. 15