http www bized co uk Economic Growth Copyright

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http: //www. bized. co. uk Economic Growth Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Economic Growth Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Economic Growth Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Economic Growth Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Benefits Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Benefits Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Benefits • Increases in economic growth should enable more

http: //www. bized. co. uk Benefits • Increases in economic growth should enable more of everything to be produced • Increases possibility of providing consumer goods for all • More consumer goods, etc. could be equated with an increase in living standards • Wealth generated may eventually ‘trickle down’ to those who are poor by means of income distribution – taxes and benefits, etc. Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Benefits • Improved standards of living associated with increase

http: //www. bized. co. uk Benefits • Improved standards of living associated with increase in the availability of luxury goods: – TVs – Fridges and freezers – Swimming pools, etc. • In addition: – Infrastructure – roads, rail, energy, water, communication networks – Health and education provision We tend to associate improved living standards with the availability of consumer goods and essential services. • All associated with a ‘decent’ standard of living. Copyright: Anne-Marie Labbate, http: //www. sxc. hu/index. phtml Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Improvement in Welfare • Welfare associated with well-being: •

http: //www. bized. co. uk Improvement in Welfare • Welfare associated with well-being: • Welfare is improved by the provision of support services for those not necessarily able to help themselves – often on the margins of society. Welfare includes: – – – Pensions Benefits – sickness, disability, etc. Support – maternity, holidays, Housing Infrastructure – homes for the elderly • Such welfare provision often funded through income redistribution - taxes Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Welfare • Providing support for the elderly, homeless, orphaned

http: //www. bized. co. uk Welfare • Providing support for the elderly, homeless, orphaned and disadvantaged is something only wealthy countries can afford to any great extent. Copyright: Mexikids, http: //www. sxc. hu/index. phtml Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Costs Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Costs Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Costs • Economic growth can bring with it costs:

http: //www. bized. co. uk Costs • Economic growth can bring with it costs: – Not all income distributed equally – Wealth often in the hands of a few – ‘Trickle down’ does not always seem to work in practice – Corruption may reduce redistribution effects – Growth funded in part by spending on weapons which do not benefit the population as a whole Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Costs • Environmental problems – Expansion and growth brings

http: //www. bized. co. uk Costs • Environmental problems – Expansion and growth brings with it the problems of pollution – often developing countries do not have the infrastructure to cope with the waste generated nor the legislation or regulation to influence those who produce it. Expansion generates waste products as does increased consumption – with subsequent costs to society. Copyright: Marzie, http: //www. sxc. hu/index. phtml Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Environmental Impact The destruction of the rain forests in

http: //www. bized. co. uk Environmental Impact The destruction of the rain forests in Brazil and elsewhere highlight the problems of growth in developing countries. Title: Rain forests in Brazil are cleared and burned by settlers for farmland. Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery (http: //eig. edina. ac. uk) • Negative Externalities • Pollution – dumping of hazardous waste • Environmental degradation – over farming reduces productivity of the soil, deforestation, damage to eco-systems and reduction in biodiversity • Non-renewable resources – finite resources Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Opportunity Cost of Growth • Resource allocation – Consumer

http: //www. bized. co. uk Opportunity Cost of Growth • Resource allocation – Consumer Goods? – Capital Goods? • Necessity of generating growth through allocating resources to the sources of growth – capital goods • Makes population poorer as fewer consumer goods initially available – often these consumer goods represent the basic essentials of life Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Opportunity Cost of Growth Capital Goods Any Production attempt

http: //www. bized. co. uk Opportunity Cost of Growth Capital Goods Any Production attempt to. Possibility increase the Frontier: basis for wealth generation – by producing more capital goods Assume initial output levels of C 1 consumer that need to be used for such wealth goods and K 1 capital goods – where C 1 generation – will mean a reduction in the barely represents the essentials of life in a number of consumer goods available (the developing country – clean water, food, opportunity cost). Such a reduction can be shelter, etc. very damaging to a country already suffering a lack of basic essentials. K 2 Gain Opportunity cost of K 2 – K 1 capital goods is C 1 – C 2 consumer goods sacrificed. K 1 Sacrifice C 2 C 1 Consumer Goods Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Capital Goods Growth and Production Possibility Frontiers B K

http: //www. bized. co. uk Capital Goods Growth and Production Possibility Frontiers B K 2 K 1 1. Economic growth when a country is operating below capacity – more of both capital and consumer goods are made available as the economy moves from point A to point B A C 1 C 2 Consumer Goods Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Capital Goods Growth and Production Possibility Frontiers B K

http: //www. bized. co. uk Capital Goods Growth and Production Possibility Frontiers B K 2 A K 1 C 2 2. Country operating at full capacity but discovers new resources or find ways of improving the efficiency of existing resources, for example, education of the population to improve the quality of human capital. Consumer Goods Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Capital Goods K 2 K 1 Growth and Production

http: //www. bized. co. uk Capital Goods K 2 K 1 Growth and Production Possibility Frontiers A C 1 B C 2 3. Disproportionate shift in PPF caused by investment in resources suitable for producing certain types of goods – for example, investment from overseas may generate growth in the production of consumer goods as opposed to capital goods – is such investment of long term benefit to a developing country? Consumer Goods Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed

http: //www. bized. co. uk Capital Goods K 2 K 1 Growth and Production

http: //www. bized. co. uk Capital Goods K 2 K 1 Growth and Production Possibility Frontiers B A C 1 C 2 4. Disproportionate shift in PPF as a result of investment in resources that favour generation of capital goods – may not initially seem to have major impact on the standard of living of the country but may have long term benefits in enabling more sustainable long term growth. Consumer Goods Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed