HTML BASICS 1 MARKUP LANGUAGES Traditionally used to

  • Slides: 45
Download presentation
HTML BASICS 1

HTML BASICS 1

MARK-UP LANGUAGES Traditionally used to provide typesetting information to printers where text should be

MARK-UP LANGUAGES Traditionally used to provide typesetting information to printers where text should be indented, margin sizes, bold text, special font sizes and styles, etc. Word processors like MS Word, and typesetting systems like La. Tex are also forms of mark-up languages. Rich Text Format (rtf) files are written in a mark-up text format. 2

HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE ( HTML ) describes the structure of the document provides text

HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE ( HTML ) describes the structure of the document provides text and other formatting instructions to tell the browser how to render the material. has evolved to version 4. 01. www. w 3. org 3

WEB BROWSER Software when connected to the Internet is able to access documents at

WEB BROWSER Software when connected to the Internet is able to access documents at remote locations and display them locally in accordance with its interpretation of markup instructions in the document. Examples: Internet Explorer, Chrome, Fire. Fox, Opera, etc. 4

HTML DOCUMENTS Plain text files, with extension htm or html. The extension tells the

HTML DOCUMENTS Plain text files, with extension htm or html. The extension tells the browser interpret the file according to HTML standards. Use any plain text editor to create html files manually. Browsers may display other types of files as well, according to the file’s extension. TXT -. txt - plain text file, no formatting. PDF -. portable document format (Adobe corporation) JPG -. jpg - JPEG image file. 5

HTML EXTENSIONS For special applications there are proprietary extensions for the html language although

HTML EXTENSIONS For special applications there are proprietary extensions for the html language although they are NOT official parts of html. Active Server Pages (ASP) files are server-side script engine by Microsoft. Personal Home Page: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) which, like asp, generally require the server to have a special handling package installed, for the extension. 6

CASE RESTRICTIONS html is case-insensitive, meaning that either upper or lower case may be

CASE RESTRICTIONS html is case-insensitive, meaning that either upper or lower case may be used. Example: <hr> = <HR> = <h. R>. Use lower case only in this course. 7

BASIC HTML DOCUMENT STRUCTURE <html> { Markup Language Type Declaration } <head> <title> {

BASIC HTML DOCUMENT STRUCTURE <html> { Markup Language Type Declaration } <head> <title> { Descriptive Text Here }</title> </head> <body> { Main content here } </body> </html> 8

DOCTYPE A pre-processor directive at the top of the document tells the browser what

DOCTYPE A pre-processor directive at the top of the document tells the browser what kind of standards apply to the document. See the first line of the "testpage. html" example. <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W 3 C//DTD HTML 4. 0 Transitional//EN"> 9

TEMPLATE <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W 3 C//DTD HTML 4. 0 Transitional//EN"> <html> <head> <meta

TEMPLATE <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W 3 C//DTD HTML 4. 0 Transitional//EN"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> <title>***replace this text with course & section number and your full name </title> </head> <body> <!--Begin your content specification by adding your elements here. --> </body> </html> 10

ELEMENTS html documents consist of a number of elements where text is placed in

ELEMENTS html documents consist of a number of elements where text is placed in containers with a start tag and an end tag (tandem tags) <start tag>some text goes here. </end tag> Some containers use only one tag – aka empty or standalone tags <hr> : draws a line across the document : a line feed, or break 11

BASIC CONSTRUCTS All tags must be nested correctly: <p> … </p> contains a paragraph

BASIC CONSTRUCTS All tags must be nested correctly: <p> … </p> contains a paragraph and <em> … </em> contains emphasized text Invalid: <p>This <em> overlap is not nested. </p> So it is invalid. </em> Valid: <p><em>This is correct nesting. </em> It is valid!</p> 12

THE HEAD (HEADER) SECTION <head> (begin the head section) <title> (a descriptive title of

THE HEAD (HEADER) SECTION <head> (begin the head section) <title> (a descriptive title of document) </title> <! --- >Optional items such as script here</> </head> (end of the head section) 13

THE BODY SECTION <body> { elements of the document to be displayed in the

THE BODY SECTION <body> { elements of the document to be displayed in the document area go here } </body> 14

TEXT ELEMENT TAGS <p> … </p> (Paragraph) <b> … </b> (Bold) <i> … </i>

TEXT ELEMENT TAGS <p> … </p> (Paragraph) <b> … </b> (Bold) <i> … </i> (Italics <u> … </u> (Underline) <em> … </em> (Emphasis - depends on browser) (Line feed or break) <hr> (Horizontal Rule/line) 15

HEADINGS – SIX (6) LEVELS <h 1> … </h 1> (Heading level 1: most

HEADINGS – SIX (6) LEVELS <h 1> … </h 1> (Heading level 1: most prominent) <h 2> … </h 2> <h 3> … </h 3> … <h 6> … </h 6> (Heading level 6: least prominent) <blockquote> … </blockquote> (Indents one tab) 16

LISTS <ol> (Begin an Ordered List) <li> … </li> (A list element) <li> …

LISTS <ol> (Begin an Ordered List) <li> … </li> (A list element) <li> … </li> (Another list element) </ol> (End of Ordered List) <ul> … </ul> (As above, but Unordered List) 17

HTML DOCUMENT EXAMPLE <html> <! This is a comment line: Browser will ignore it.

HTML DOCUMENT EXAMPLE <html> <! This is a comment line: Browser will ignore it. > <head> <title> HTML document example</title> </head> <body> <h 3> This be a heading level 3</h 3> <p>This is a sentence in this document. </p> <p>This is another sentence. </p> <blockquote> <ol> <li> List item number 1</li> <li> List item number 2</li> <li> List item number 3</li> </ol> </blockquote> </body> </html> 18

THE ANCHOR ELEMENT The anchor element, the single letter a, is used to connect

THE ANCHOR ELEMENT The anchor element, the single letter a, is used to connect or link different documents or parts of one document. Any text associated with the anchor element, called anchor text is displayed on the screen. When an anchor text is clicked, a 'jump' is made to the destination or target location. 19

HYPERTEXT LINKS Used to create a link that jumps from one point in a

HYPERTEXT LINKS Used to create a link that jumps from one point in a document to another document. Destination may be external (another web site) or local (a document in the local machine). 20

GENERAL FORM: <a href = “URL”> anchor text </a> 21

GENERAL FORM: <a href = “URL”> anchor text </a> 21

EXAMPLE A (EXTERNAL): <a href = “http: //www. yorku. ca”>York University</a> Searches for the

EXAMPLE A (EXTERNAL): <a href = “http: //www. yorku. ca”>York University</a> Searches for the web site “yorku. ca” on the World Wide Web. A default page will be displayed when the site is located. 22

EXAMPLE B (LOCAL): <a href = “rules. html”>Game Rules</a> Causes the html file “rules.

EXAMPLE B (LOCAL): <a href = “rules. html”>Game Rules</a> Causes the html file “rules. html” to replace the current page in the browser. The browser assumes the file is in the same directory as the currently displayed file (default) – otherwise an error message will be displayed. 23

EXAMPLE C (NOT TRANSPORTABLE): <a href = “file: //c: /myfiles/rules. htm”>Game Rules</a> Looks for

EXAMPLE C (NOT TRANSPORTABLE): <a href = “file: //c: /myfiles/rules. htm”>Game Rules</a> Looks for the page in the myfiles subdirectory or folder on C: drive of your machine; not on the Web. Unless your computer is a web server, your site can only be accessed on your machine. 24

INTERNAL (NAMED) LINKS Used to create a link that jumps from one point in

INTERNAL (NAMED) LINKS Used to create a link that jumps from one point in a document to another in the same document. The destination or the target location in the document is marked with a name tag. A “#” pre-pended to the destination name is used with href specification at the origin point. 25

EXAMPLE D: INTERNAL (NAMED) LINKS <a name = “target”> </a> Creates a named label

EXAMPLE D: INTERNAL (NAMED) LINKS <a name = “target”> </a> Creates a named label “target” at the point in the document where it is located. <a href = “#target”>Go To Target Section</a> Displays “Go To Target Description” and causes a jump to the point of the label when clicked. Note: "target" is case-sensitive; must be identical in both tags. 26

IMAGES - EMBEDDED/INLINE The <img … > tag (element) is used to manipulate image

IMAGES - EMBEDDED/INLINE The <img … > tag (element) is used to manipulate image and graphics files. Attributes: src = “name…. ”: Identifies the file to be loaded into a document. align = “top”, “middle”, “bottom”, “left”, or “right”: Positions the image in the document 27

E. G. 1 <img src = “selfie 01. jpg”> Loads a jpeg* file named

E. G. 1 <img src = “selfie 01. jpg”> Loads a jpeg* file named “selfie 01” into the document at the location of the element. JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group compression format – file extension, . jpg 28

E. G. 2 <img src = “selfie 01. gif” align = “right”> Loads a

E. G. 2 <img src = “selfie 01. gif” align = “right”> Loads a gif* file named “selfie 01” into the document at the location of the element, and moves it to the right hand side of the page. GIF - Graphics Interchange Format compression format - file extension, . gif 29

E. G. 3 <img src = “selfie 01. bmp” align = “middle” height =

E. G. 3 <img src = “selfie 01. bmp” align = “middle” height = “ 100” width = “ 200”> Loads a *. bmp file into the document, centers it vertically, relative to the line, and gives it a height of 100 pixels and a width of 200 pixels. This may distort the original proportions of the image. BMP- Bit. Map: simpler non-compressed graphics image format. - file extension, . bmp 30

E. G. 4 <img src = “selfie 01. jpg” alt = “Sorry, no picture

E. G. 4 <img src = “selfie 01. jpg” alt = “Sorry, no picture available!”> Loads the image “selfie 01. jpg” if available. If for some reason the image can not be loaded, the browser should display the text “Sorry, no picture available!” in its place. This facility was originally intended to accommodate text -only browsers. 31

ANIMATED GIF FILE A *. gif image file which is composed of a series

ANIMATED GIF FILE A *. gif image file which is composed of a series of frames or images, simulates motion by displaying the images in the file consecutively. It is an electronic equivalent of an older style celluloid motion picture. 32

TABLES A table is a matrix formed by the intersection of horizontal rows and

TABLES A table is a matrix formed by the intersection of horizontal rows and vertical columns. Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 33

TABLES • The intersection of a column and row is called a cell. •

TABLES • The intersection of a column and row is called a cell. • Cells in the same row or column are usually logically related in some way. Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Row 1 cell Row 2 cell Row 3 cell 34

TABLES A table is defined by the tandem tag container <table> … </table>. HTML

TABLES A table is defined by the tandem tag container <table> … </table>. HTML expects everything between the start and elements to be part of the table. Different browsers may render table element attributes differently, but, in general, things like cell spacing, type of border, size of cells, number of cells in a row, and background and text colors may be defined. 35

< tr > … < /tr> Within each row container, each cell is defined

< tr > … < /tr> Within each row container, each cell is defined by either table header < th > … < /th > , or table data < td > … < /td > <th> … < /th > is for Table Header <td> … < /td > is for ordinary Table Data The Table Header container < th > … < /th > has exactly the same output as the combination: <td><center><b> … </b></center></td> 36

Table Format [ 3 columns x 2 Rows ] <table> <tr> <th> Row Header

Table Format [ 3 columns x 2 Rows ] <table> <tr> <th> Row Header </th> <td> Data </td> </tr> <td> Data </td> </tr> </table> 37

< th > and <td> Attributes: colspan = “x” : Forces the cell to

< th > and <td> Attributes: colspan = “x” : Forces the cell to cover “x” number of columns. Default = 1. E. G. < td colspan = “ 3” >. . . </td> rowspan = “y” : Forces the cell to cover “y” number of rows. Default = 1. font whatever = ( as desired ) : font attribute such as color, size, family, etc. valign = “top”, “middle”, or “bottom” : Sets vertical alignment in the cell. E. G. < td valign = “top” >. . . </td> align = “left”, “center”, or “right” : Sets horizontal alignment in the cell. 38

Other Table Options: <thead> … </thead> • Defines a header section. Contains <tr> elements.

Other Table Options: <thead> … </thead> • Defines a header section. Contains <tr> elements. • If used, it MUST precede a <tbody> … </tbody> • which contains the usual table rows, and this should be followed by a footer. <tfoot> … </tfoot> • These three are optional unless the first is used. 39

More Table Format [ 3 columns x 2 Rows ] <table> <thead> <tr> <th

More Table Format [ 3 columns x 2 Rows ] <table> <thead> <tr> <th colspan = “ 3” align = “center”> Header </th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <th> Row Header </th> <td> Data </td> </tr> <td> Data </td> <tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr> <th colspan = “ 3” align = “center”> Footer </th> </tr> </tfoot> </table> 40

More Example Specifications Define a table with: • Three pixels between the inside edge

More Example Specifications Define a table with: • Three pixels between the inside edge of a cell and its contents, • Two pixels between the outside edges of cells, • A width of 85% of the browser display, • No visible border. <table cellpadding = “ 3” cellspacing = “ 2” width = “ 85%” border = “ 0”> 41

Table cells may contain many different ordinary HTML containers, making them quite versatile as

Table cells may contain many different ordinary HTML containers, making them quite versatile as aids in layout and design. Including: Images Hypertext Links Lengthy Text Applets & Objects Other tables 42

Table-in-a-table example: <table> <tr> <td> <img src = “somepicture. jpg”></td></tr> <td><a href = “target.

Table-in-a-table example: <table> <tr> <td> <img src = “somepicture. jpg”></td></tr> <td><a href = “target. URL”>Click ME!</td></tr> </table> 43

Mailto: – Linking to your E-mail client E. G. 1: Invokes a mail client

Mailto: – Linking to your E-mail client E. G. 1: Invokes a mail client to send an email to an email address <a href = “mailto: [email protected] com” > User's system must be configured for email use. E. G. 2: send an email to the address with a subject <a href = “mailto: [email protected] com? subject="Hello there!” > *There is no space between “? ” and “subject” 44

The index. html file The file name “index. html”, or “index. htm” is reserved.

The index. html file The file name “index. html”, or “index. htm” is reserved. This is the file in a directory which will be used automatically by default if a URL ends in the directory name instead of a file name. On most servers, the use of this file as the default helps prevent unauthorized access to the directory. Some servers may have a hierarchy of default file names. 45