- Slides: 21
HST 327: History of Mexican Americans Mexican Struggles in the United States, 1897 -1980 Redefinition, Resistance & Accommodation
Introduction to the Course n Brief Course Orientation n Background Material – Indigenous America – Spanish Colonial Society – Mexican Independence – Invasion and Conquest of Northern Mexico n Major Themes in Chicano History
Introduction to Chicano History From Indigenous America to the Southwest United States, 1500 B. C. -1897 A. D.
Key Questions n n n n What is the historical meaning of Aztlan prior to 1960? Who was Malinche? What were the most important divisions in Spanish Colonial society? When and how did Mexico become independent from Spain? How did settlers from the United States come to be in Tejas? What tensions existed between the immigrants from the U. S. and the Mexican government? After the Mexican American War what views existed about Mexican people in the U. S. ? What was the “All Mexico” lobby? What is the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? What were its key provisions?
The “Aztecs” Nahuatl Nahuas Aztlan Mexica Tenochtitlan
The Conquest of Tenochtitlan Native Allies (Tlaxcaltecas) n Disease n Translators (Malinche and Geronimo de Aguilar) n
Spanish Colonial Society Casta System (Peninsulares, Criollos, Mestizos, Mulatos, Indios & Negros) n Gente de Razon/Indios Barbaros n Genizaros n
Population of Mexico in 1810 Racial Category Number Percentage 3, 676, 281 60 15, 000 0. 3 1, 092, 397 18 Mestizos 704, 245 11 Mulatos (Afromestizos) 624, 461 10 Negros (Africans) 10, 000 0. 2 Indians Peninsulares (Spanish) Criollos (Spanish born in Mexico) Adapted from Historia Social y Economica de Mexico (1521 -1854) by Austin Cue Canovas.
Mexican Independence Grito de Dolores(September 16, 1821) n Father Miguel Hidalgo n Virgen de Guadalupe n Plan de Iguala n
Tejas & the Mexican-American War n Tejano n Anglo n Texas Independence 1836 -1845 n Mexican. American War 1846 -1848
Tejas & The Mexican-American War
American Views of Mexico Manifest Destiny n The Black Legend n Opposition to the War & the “All Mexico” lobby n – anti-Slavery – anti-Mexican • “an Indian race” • “mongrel” • They will not remain “idle spectators” Pro-War Pamphlet, 1847
Against the “All Mexico” Lobby “I know sir we have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race-the free white race. To incorporate Mexico would be the very first instance of the kind of incorporating an Indian race. . . I protest against such a union as that! Ours, sir, is the Government of the White race. The greatest misfortunes of Spanish America are to be traced to the fatal error of placing these colored races on equality with the white race. ” -Senator -John C. Calhoun
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico ceded 55% of its territory to the U. S. and received 15 million dollars. n Border settled at Rio Grande. n Mexican citizens retain property & have the right to become U. S. citizens. n
Major Themes in Chicano History The Chicano Movement & Chicanos as a historical subject. n Push-Pull Theories of Migration n Colonial Relationships n – Internal Colonies – Relationship between the United States and Mexico n Cultural & Religious Conflict
Presentism & the Role of Immigrants in the Latino Population
Further Reading Aguirre, Robert D. Informal Empire: Mexico and Central America in Victorian Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005. Anaya, Rudolfo A, and Francisco A Lomelí, eds. Aztlán: Essays on the Chicano Homeland. Albuquerque, N. M: University of New Mexico Press, 1991. Bonfil Batalla, Guillermo. México Profundo: Reclaiming a Civilization. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996. Brooks, James. Captives & Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. 1 st ed. New York: Norton, 2001. González, Deena J. Refusing the Favor: The Spanish-Mexican Women of Santa Fe, 1820 -1880. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Griswold del Castillo, Richard. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo a Legacy of Conflict. 1 st ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. Gutiérrez, Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500 -1846. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1991. Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815 -1848. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Luna, Guadalupe T. Legal Realism and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Fractionalized Legal Template. Madison: Law School of the University of Wisconsin, 2005. Mann, Charles C. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Knopf, 2005. Taylor, Alan. American Colonies. New York: Viking, 2001. Van Young, Eric. The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence, Ideology, and the Mexican Struggle for Independence, 1810 -1821. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. Wright, Ronald. Stolen Continents: Five Hundred Years of Conquest and Resistance in the Americas. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.