- Slides: 26
How to Give a Persuasive Speech
A persuasive speech is a presentation that aims to change others by prompting them to think, feel, or act differently. • change people’s attitudes, • change the strength towards or against people, policies, or ideas • change how people act
Characteristics of Persuasive Speech 1) Persuasive speaking is “interactive. ” an engagement between a speaker and a listener 2) Persuasion is NOT the same as coercion, or force. not force them to do be artistic 3) Persuasive impact is usually gradual, or incremental.
Three Cornerstones of Persuasion Three forms of proof, or reasons people believe (by Aristotle) 1. Ethos – the perceived personal character of the speaker 2. Pathos – emotional proofs, or reasons to believe in something 3. Logos – rational or logical proofs
ETHOS “The perceived personal character of the speaker” Listeners think or perceive that: - you have integrity, credibility - - you can be trusted - you have goodwill toward them - you know what you’re talking about - you are committed to the topic (show enthusiasm and be dynamic)
PATHOS “Emotional reasons to believe in something” Listeners need to not only understand your ideas but also feel something about them. How: Personalize the issue problem, topic Appeal to listeners’ needs and values Bring material alive
LOGOS “Rational or logical proofs” Logical proofs = arguments, reasoning, and evidence to support claims Evidence = examples, testimony, statistics, analogies, visual aids, and etc.
Building Credibility = Ethos A willingness of others to believe that a person has personal integrity, is positively disposed toward them, and can be trusted. Credibility is not a static quality. It can change, increase or decrease, as a result of a speech.
Types of Credibility 1) Initial credibility = expertise and trustworthiness ) listeners recognize BEFORE a presentation (based on positions, achievements, experiences) 2) Derived credibility = expertise and trustworthiness listeners recognize as a result of how speakers communicate during a presentation 3) Terminal credibility = credible speakers have at the end of a presentation (cumulative expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness listeners recognize in a speaker)
How to build credibility 1. State your qualification 2. Show that you care about listeners 3. Appeal to listeners’ emotions 4. Reason carefully 5. Use effective and ethical supporting materials 6. Use verbal and nonverbal communication to show that you care about the topic 7. Respond to questions with open-mindedness and fairness
Principles of Speech Organization Introduction should capture audience’s attention, provide clear thesis statement, preview what you will cover. Internal summaries of main points should be provided. Smooth transitions between points and parts of a speech are needed. Body should be organized to reinforce thesis and show unity of ideas. Conclusion should summarize main points and end with strong closing statements.
“Motivated Sequence Pattern” Attention – “Pay attention. This is important to you. ” Need – “Something is wrong and something must be done about it. ” Satisfaction – “What I have to offer is the way to solve the problem. ” Visualization – “This is how my plan will work to solve the problem; and if you accept my solution, things will be much better. ” Action – “Take action!”
Persuasive Speech Outline I. Begin with an Attention Step that is an - Opening statement of interest (use one or more of the following): A rhetorical question A startling statement A quotation An illustration or story A reference to the subject A reference to the occasion
- Motivate audience interest in your subject by alluding to: (use one or more of the following): The practical value of the information for your audience A reason to listen The audience’s sense of curiosity Establish your credibility by: Alluding to any first-hand experience you may have had Alluding to sources of information you have consulted
II. Show there is a need To urge a change-point out what’s wrong with present conditions To demand preservation of present conditions-point out the danger of a change The Need Step is developed by: Illustration: Tell of one or more incidents to illustrate the need Ramifications: Employ as many additional facts, examples, and quotations as are required to make the need convincingly impressive. Pointing: Show its importance to the individuals in the audience.
III. Present a solution The Solution is developed by: (use one or more of the following): Statement of solution: a brief statement of the attitude, belief, or action you wish the audience to adopt. Explanation: Make sure that your proposal is understood. Theoretical demonstration: show the solution logically and adequately meets the need pointed out in the need step, point-by-point! Practical experience: actual examples showing where this proposal has worked effectively or where the belief has proven correct. Meeting objections: forestall opposition by showing how your proposal overcomes any objections which might be raised.
IV. Help your audience visualize the future The visualization step must stand the test of reality. The conditions you describe must be at least realistic. The more vividly you make the situation seem, the stronger will be the reaction of the audience. There are three methods of visualizing the future (use one or more of the following): Positive: Describe the conditions if your solution is actually carried out. Picture the listeners in that situation actually enjoying the safety, pleasure, or pride that your proposal will produce. Negative: Describe conditions if your solution is not carried out. Picture the audience feeling the bad effects or unpleasantness that the failure to effect your solution will produce. Contrast: Combination of 1 and 2. Begin with the negative method (undesirable situation) and conclude with the positive method (desirable solution).
V. Conclude with the Action Step developed by (use one or more of the following): • Restatement of main idea and summary of main points. • Statement of specific action or attitude change you want from the audience. • A statement of your personal intent to take the course of action or attitude recommended. • A concluding statement to recapture interest (a reason to remember).
General Presentation Skills Finding the right register: Getting the right balance between formality and informality in a presentation is very tricky. • • • Avoid colloquialisms (“sort of” or “kinda”) Try to avoid erms and ums You want your audience to respect you, not like you. Try to speak more slowly than you would normally. Use pauses for emphasis (as opposed to raising your voice) Don’t let your voice fade away at the end of sentences.
General Presentation Skills Reduce Anxiety The easiest way to reduce anxiety is to have a well prepared and well rehearsed presentation. However, if nerves are still a problem, try the following… • Visualisation: Imagine yourself giving a brilliant presentation. • Breath deeply. • Relax muscles / Release tension. • Take a script which you can read if all else fails. • Do something else really stressful just before…(drastic, but works!)
General Presentation Skills Know your audience: Ensure you tailor your presentation appropriately, depending on the audience makeup. Do they know a lot or a little about the issue, do they generally support or oppose the issue. A good general rule is that it pays to keep things simple.
General Presentation Skills Preparing your presentation: • Use Powerpoint (or handouts) • If using powerpoint, don’t use anything less than a 24 pt font. • Aim for about 8 slides for a 15 minute talk. • Do not put more than 4 or 5 pieces of information on each slide. • Make sure the slide contains information which will prompt you to make the points you want to make.
Practice • Practice giving the presentation to a friendly audience and ask them for honest and constructive criticism. • Finishing on time is very important, and requires practice. • So practice out loud on your own with a clock.
Some general tips • Make eye contact. • Talk clearly to the back of the audience. • Don’t mumble the ends of sentences. • Be enthusiastic (or pretend…) • Ask someone in the audience to warn you when you have two minutes left or wear a watch and pay attention to the time. • The only way it gets better is to give more talks.
Tips for handling questions • Repeat questions for the benefit of the audience (and to give yourself extra thinking time). • Be honest when answering questions, especially if you have no idea of the answer. • Don’t be afraid to ask the questioner to be clearer. • Don’t be afraid or ashamed to let someone else in the room answer the question.
Seek first to understand, then to be understood. Stephen Covey History will have to record that the greatest tragedy of this period of social transition was not the strident clamor of the bad people, but the appalling silence of the good people. Martin Luther King, Jr.