How the Executive Branch Works What is required
How the Executive Branch Works What is required of leaders?
The White House Office The Executive Office of the President (EOP) is overseen by the president’s chief of staff. • person takes care of the president’s schedules. • also decides who is allowed to meet with the president. The heart of the EOP, however, is the White House Office. • This group is made up of about 500 people who work directly for the president. • tasks include helping the president develop policy and communicate with Congress and the general public.
Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) prepares the federal budget. ($)
National Security Council The National Security Council (NSC) advises the president on matters of national security.
Council of Economic Advisers The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) helps the president carry out the role, or job, of economic leader. • president names people to the CEA, but the Senate must approve them. • CEA gives advice on economic policy. • addresses such matters as job growth, prices, and trade.
The President’s Cabinet - a group of advisers to the president that includes the heads of 15 top-level executive departments -15 different departments. -Each has a secretary that heads the department except for the department of justice which has an attorney general.
Cabinet Responsibilities Cabinet members give the president advice on matters that touch the departments they lead. • The president decides when the cabinet is to meet. • Meetings may be held as often as once a week or hardly at all. • Cabinet members spend most of their time directing the activities in their departments.
Department of Homeland Security In • • • 2002, President Bush signed the Homeland Security Act. law set up the new Department of Homeland Security. task of this department is to protect the nation from attacks by terrorists. gather information about terrorists and their plans.
The Federal Bureaucracy federal bureaucracy - agencies and the employees of the executive branch of government • About 3 million people work in the executive branch. 1 st - agencies put laws passed by Congress into practice. • Laws are often written in very general terms. • agencies have to turn those guidelines into specific rules. 2 nd - departments and agencies carry out the day-to-day activities of the federal government. • Some workers deliver the mail, some collect taxes, and some take care of national parks. etc. 3 rd - federal agencies oversee certain activities • example, they watch banks to make sure that they obey the rules about banking. • decide if products are safe to use.
Independent Agencies • independent because they are not part of a cabinet department. Three types: 1. executive agency - independent agency that deals with certain specific areas within the government • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for example, runs the space program. 2. government corporation - a business owned and operated by the federal government • United States Postal Service 3. regulatory commission - independent agency created by Congress that can make rules concerning certain activities and bring violators to court • U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission establishes safety standards for thousands of types of consumer products.
Government Workers The top jobs in a department or agency usually go to political appointees. political appointee - a person appointed to a federal position by the president About 90 percent of those who work in the federal government are civil service workers. • Unlike political appointees, civil service workers usually have permanent jobs. civil service system - the practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit
Spoils System vs. Merit System Before 1883, many federal jobs fell under the spoils system - rewarding people with government jobs on the basis of their political support Now merit system-hiring people into government jobs on the basis of their qualifications