How Governments Distribute Power Unitary Confederation Federal
Unitary w Definition: A form of government in which power is held by one central government. w Power is NOT shared between states, counties, or provinces. w Example: United Kingdom
Unitary Ways Government Distributes Power Regional Authority Central Authority Regional Authority
Confederation • Definition: • A form of government based on a voluntary agreement under which separate countries work together • Voluntary association of independent states that often • • only delegate a few powers to the central authority. Secure some common purpose. Agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action. Each unit has final control of its own laws and citizens. Confederations can be unstable because members often want to do things their own way! • Example: European Union and OPEC
Confederation Ways Government Distributes Power Regional Authority Central Authority Regional Authority
Federal • Definition: A form of government in which power is divided by a powerful central government and states or provinces that are given considerable self-rule, usually through their own legislatures. • Examples: The United States, Germany, Australia, Canada, Russia, Mexico
Federation / Federal Ways Government Distributes Power Regional Authority Central Authority Regional Authority
Ways Government Distributes Power State/regional authorities hold most of the power All key powers are held by the central government Unitary Strong central government Federal Confederation Weaker central government
How Governments Determine Citizen Participation • Autocratic (Autocracy) • Oligarchic (Oligarchy) • Democratic (Democracy)
Autocratic Government in which one person possesses unlimited power Citizens have little if any role in the government
Oligarchic Government by the few: A small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes The citizen has a very limited role.
Democratic A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. Citizens vote for leaders.
Two Types of Democracy Parliamentary Presidential
Parliamentary • A system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. • May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature.
Parliamentary Systems £ The executive and legislature are fused. Survival and origin of each branch are not separate. £ The people elect the Parliament; the Parliament elects the cabinet and Prime Minister. £ Many parliamentary governments have a dual-executive. One ceremonial (the monarchy), one political (prime minister and cabinet).
Queen Elizabeth II, Britain’s Head of State
Parliamentary Systems Survival not separate: Cabinet must “maintain the confidence” of parliament (sustain the support of a majority of MPs) or resign. Terms of office are not fixed, so cabinet can dissolve parliament and call new elections when it sees fit. Thus, the executive can dissolve the legislature and the legislature can axe the executive!
Countries with parliamentary system
Presidential Democracy • A system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature. • Original presidential system: ours! But also very common in Latin America, Africa, and parts of Asia. Not popular in Europe.
Presidential Democracy k. Separate origin: Both branches are elected separately, in different elections. k. Separate survival: Both branches are elected for a fixed term, neither can dismiss the other. k. Cabinet answers only to president. k. Personnel of each branch is non-overlapping.
Low or No Participation Autocratic Low or No Participation Oligarchic Citizen Participation Government Power General Citizens’ Participation Select Citizens’ Participation Government Power Citizen Participation Government Power How Governments Determine Citizen Participation High Participation Low or No Participation Democracy
You live in a small country ruled by one man, who is also the head of the military. The only tv and radio stations you have are owned and run by the government. You can access the internet, but can only see certain government-approved websites. Although your country has elections, you are only allowed to vote for your current leader. People who criticize or protest against the government are jailed or executed. Which form of government best describes the government where you live? ZA. autocratic ZB. parliamentary ZC. democratic ZD. oligarchic
You are the chief executive in your country’s democratically-elected national government. You came to power in the last election after your political party won a majority of seats in the national legislature. As the leader of your political party, you were chosen to be the head of the government by your co-workers in the legislature. Which form of government do you have? v A. presidential v B. autocratic v C. parliamentary v D. oligarchic
C. parliamentary v The United Kingdom has a parliamentary democracy.
The country in which you live has a central government that shares the power with several state and local governments. Which word best describes the way your government distributes power? • A. unitary • B. confederation • C. federal
• C. federal • America has a federal system of government. • Germany also has a federal system of government.
I live in a country that has regular elections. The legislature is elected separately from the head of government. What type of democracy does my country have? • • A. oligarchic B. autocratic C. parliamentary D. presidential
• D. presidential
Anne lives in a country that has a strong central government that does not share power with states or provinces within the country or with any other country. What type of government best describes how Anne’s country distributes power? § A. Unitary § B. Confederation § C. Federal
In George’s country, there a few leaders. They were not chosen by the people. They make decisions for the country based on what is best for them not for the country. They are mostly interested in making themselves rich. What type of citizen participation does George’s country have? • A. autocratic • B. oligarchic • C. democratic
• B. oligarchic
◊ In which system of government does the legislature elect the executive leader of the government? ◊ A. democratic ◊ B. communist ◊ C. parliamentary ◊ D. totalitarian
§ C. parliamentary
RWhich statement about Great Britain's parliamentary system of government today is true? RA. Members of both houses of Parliament are elected for life. RB. The queen decides which laws Parliament will debate. RC. Members of Parliament do not belong to political parties. RD. The prime minister is not directly chosen by voters.
D. The prime minister is not directly chosen by voters.