- Slides: 21
Hot Spots in the Cold War
Wartime Mistrust between the Allies o o The Yalta conference February 1945 establishes “spheres of influence” after the war. Stalin and the Soviets were not told about the atomic bombs and found out about them when they were dropped on Japan.
Iron Curtain speech o “A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victory. Nobody knows what Soviet Russia and its Communist international organisation intends to do in the immediate future. . From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line. . police governments are prevailing in nearly every case. . . ”
How it worked: allies o o o The United Nations is set up after World War II to promote peace and cooperation. They had a hard time of it. North Atlantic Treaty Organization has the U. S. as its dominant power. Warsaw Pact is set up in response.
N. A. T. O. and the Warsaw Pact
How it worked: military supremacy o o Stalin gets the bomb September 1949. 1954 first H-bomb test on Bikini Atoll. By 1959 both U. S. and U. S. S. R. have intercontinental missiles. 1964 China gets the bomb (France and Britain have it too).
How it worked: propaganda o o o Magazines and books showed the preference of one lifestyle over the other. Movies had “type” characters (ie “Rocky IV”, “Red Dawn”). Celebrations in both cultures extolled the virtues of capitalism or communism.
How it worked: competition in space o o o Sputnik October 4, 1957; Laika goes aboard Sputnik II. By 1958 Americans have a satellite in orbit. Kennedy vows to have a man on the moon before the end of the 1960 s. 1965 both Soviets and Americans have a man in space. July 1969 Apollo 11 lands on the moon. 1971 first Soviet space station.
How it worked: sports o o Soviet system trained children early. Drugs and other “aids” were used to ensure victory at the Olympics. Even hockey series (1972) became charged with politics. Americans boycotted 1980 games, the Soviets the 1984 games.
How it worked: lifestyle o o o Bomb shelters built in many homes. Travel restrictions between countries. September 1959 Khrushchev denied access to Disneyland.
How it worked: espionage o o o The U. S. establishes the C. I. A. Britain has MI-5. The Soviets have the KGB. Igor Gouzenko defects in Ottawa. Julius and Ethel Rosenburg executed June 1953 for passing nuclear secrets to Soviet Union.
Berlin Airlift 1948 - 1949
Berlin Airlift 1948 - 1949 o o o Germany’s capital had been divided between the Allies The Soviets refuse to leave their sections, set up pro. Soviet government in East Germany Stalin cuts off all land routes to an isolated West Berlin after the three occupying powers join forces and develop a new currency 270 000 flights of supplies kept the West Germans alive through the winter and showed Stalin that the West would stand up to him Blockade was lifted May 1949
Korean War 1950 - 1953 o o China had become Communist 1949, alarming the Americans and their N. A. T. O. allies North Korea attacks South Korea June 1950 United Nations has its first test, sends in “police action” made up of forces from many U. N. nations General Douglas Macarthur after he plans to nuke China in response to their backing of North Korea
Hungarian Revolt 1956 o o o o Stalin died 1953 before he could complete his unveiling of the “Doctors Plot” Imre Nagy becomes leader of the Hungarian Communists and tries to institute reforms; he is tossed out of office October 1956 Student demonstrators are joined by others demanding reinstatement of Nagy and other reforms Hungary is taken out of Warsaw Pact Soviet troops are sent into Budapest November 4, they crush the revolt Hungarian leaders are captured and executed Thousands flee and arrive in the West as refugees
Berlin Wall 1961 o o o August 1961 Berlin Wall built Khrushchev and East German leaders alarmed by the number of skilled workers leaving the Eastern sector 155 km long, with other barriers used in River Spree; average height of 3. 6 m 171 people killed trying to get over the wall Border towers with machine guns surveyed the wall; checkpoints were set up Kennedy visits Berlin to show solidarity with the West Berliners
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 o o o o Castro takes over January 1959 April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion with Cuban exiles is a disaster for Kennedy Reconnaissance photoes taken October 1962 show missile bases in Cuba “Hawks” in Kennedy’s cabinet argued for military confrontation; others counselled caution Kennedy opts for a quarantine around Cuba to ensure Soviet ships cannot bring more missiles Some tense moments but eventually Khruschev removes missiles in return for Kennedy dismantling missile bases in Turkey (that were slated to be closed anyway) Closest the world came to nuclear war; prompts the June 1963 Hot Line agreement
Prague Spring 1968 o o o Alexander Dubcek becomes leader of Czech Communist Party Advocates “Socialism with a human face” Reforms include freedom of the press, more consumer goods, freedom of speech By August, the Soviets had enough and sent in troops; ordinary soldiers were told they were putting down a revolution Dubcek removed after a “discussion” with Soviet leader Brezhnev
Vietnam War: the ten thousand day war o o o July 1954 split at 17 th parallel after the French are defeated; Ho Chi Minh controls the communist North Late 1950 s and early 1960 s communists in South Vietnam challenge the American backed regime By 1962 there are over 12 000 “advisors” in South Vietnam Leader of South Vietnam is overthrown; Americans bomb North Vietnam July 1965 200 000 troops to Vietnam
Vietnam War: the Ten Thousand Day War o o o By 1966 almost half a million American troops are in Vietnam Tet Offensive in 1968 sees North Vietnamese attack American positions War extends to Cambodia in 1970 Scandal of the My Lai massacres shakes American support of the war, together with detailed coverage in the media and Kent State crisis 1973 cease fire and troop withdrawl before 1975 conquest of South Vietnam by the North
Fall of the Berlin Wall o o 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power promising glasnost and perestroika (openness and restructuring) 1986 Soviet satellites are no longer supported financially by the Soviet Union November 1989 Berlin Wall falls By December almost all Eastern European Communist regimes have collapses, with various degrees of violence