Homeostatic Imbalances Bones are inadequately mineralized causing softened

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Homeostatic Imbalances • – Bones are inadequately mineralized causing softened, weakened bones – Main

Homeostatic Imbalances • – Bones are inadequately mineralized causing softened, weakened bones – Main symptom is pain when weight is put on the affected bone – Caused by insufficient _

Homeostatic Imbalances • Rickets – Bones of children are inadequately mineralized causing softened, weakened

Homeostatic Imbalances • Rickets – Bones of children are inadequately mineralized causing softened, weakened bones – ________________ and deformities of the pelvis, skull, and rib cage are common – Caused by insufficient _

Isolated Cases of Rickets • Rickets has been _ • Only isolated cases appear

Isolated Cases of Rickets • Rickets has been _ • Only isolated cases appear • Example: Infants of breastfeeding mothers deficient in Vitamin D will also be Vitamin D deficient and develop rickets

Homeostatic Imbalances • Osteoporosis – Group of diseases in which _ – – Occurs

Homeostatic Imbalances • Osteoporosis – Group of diseases in which _ – – Occurs most often in postmenopausal women – Bones become so fragile that sneezing or stepping off a curb _

Osteoporosis: Treatment • • Increased _ • Hormone (estrogen) replacement therapy (HRT) slows bone

Osteoporosis: Treatment • • Increased _ • Hormone (estrogen) replacement therapy (HRT) slows bone loss • Natural progesterone cream prompts new bone growth • Statins increase bone mineral density

Chapter Seven

Chapter Seven

The Axial Skeleton • Eighty bones segregated into three regions – – –

The Axial Skeleton • Eighty bones segregated into three regions – – –

The Skull • _______________ bony structure • formed by the _ • Cranium –

The Skull • _______________ bony structure • formed by the _ • Cranium – protects the brain and is the site of attachment for head and neck muscles • Facial bones – Supply the framework of the _ – Provide openings for the passage of air and food – Anchor the facial muscles of expression

Anatomy of the Cranium • The eight cranial bones thin and remarkably strong for

Anatomy of the Cranium • The eight cranial bones thin and remarkably strong for their weight – two _ – – – Sphenoid – ethmoid

Wormian Bones • _________________ that appear within sutures

Wormian Bones • _________________ that appear within sutures

Facial Bones • _____________ of which only the mandible and vomer are unpaired •

Facial Bones • _____________ of which only the mandible and vomer are unpaired • The paired bones are – – Zygomatics – – – Palatines – inferior conchae

Mandible and Its Markings • The mandible is the ___________ bone of the face

Mandible and Its Markings • The mandible is the ___________ bone of the face • Its major markings include the – – mandibular condyle, – alveolar margin, and – – mental foramina

Maxillary Bones • upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton •

Maxillary Bones • upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton • • Their major markings include – – – palatine, frontal, zygomatic processes the alveolar margins inferior orbital fissure the maxillary sinuses

Orbits • Bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased and _ •

Orbits • Bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased and _ • Formed by parts of seven bones – – – – Zygomatic Palatine Lacrimal ethmoid

Hyoid Bone • – lies just inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck

Hyoid Bone • – lies just inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck • Only bone of the body that _________________ directly with another bone • Attachment point for neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx during swallowing and speech

Vertebral Column • Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way

Vertebral Column • Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way that a flexible curved structure results – Cervical vertebrae • _____bones of the neck – Thoracic vertebrae • _____ bones of the torso – Lumbar vertebrae • _____ bones of the lower back – Sacrum • bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones

Vertebral Column: Curvatures • – cervical and lumbar – Secondary curvatures – cervical and

Vertebral Column: Curvatures • – cervical and lumbar – Secondary curvatures – cervical and lumbar – are convex anteriorly and are _ • – thoracic and sacral – present at birth – convex posteriorly • causing the infant spine to arch like a four-legged animal

Vertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs • Cushion-like pad composed of two parts – • inner

Vertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs • Cushion-like pad composed of two parts – • inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility – • surrounds the nucleus pulposus with a collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage

General Structure of Vertebrae • – disc-shaped, weight-bearing region • – composed of pedicles

General Structure of Vertebrae • – disc-shaped, weight-bearing region • – composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with the centrum, enclose the vertebral foramen • – make up the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes

General Structure of Vertebrae • – project posteriorly, • – project laterally • Superior

General Structure of Vertebrae • – project posteriorly, • – project laterally • Superior and inferior _ – protrude superiorly and inferiorly from the pedicle-lamina junctions • Intervertebral foramina – ________________ formed from notched areas on the _

General Structure of Vertebrae

General Structure of Vertebrae

Cervical Vertebrae • Seven vertebrae (C 1 -C 7) are the _ • C

Cervical Vertebrae • Seven vertebrae (C 1 -C 7) are the _ • C 3 -C 7 – oval body – short spinous processes, – large, triangular vertebral foramina • Each transverse process contains a _

Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1) • The atlas has __________ and ___________ •

Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1) • The atlas has __________ and ___________ • It consists of anterior and posterior arches, and _ • The superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the _

Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C 2) • The axis has a body, spine, and

Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C 2) • The axis has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical vertebrae • Also has the ____________ – projects superiorly from the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas • The dens is a _______ for the rotation of the atlas

Thoracic Vertebrae • 12 Thoracic vertebrae • • Major markings include – two _

Thoracic Vertebrae • 12 Thoracic vertebrae • • Major markings include – two _ – two demifacets on the heart-shaped body, – ________ vertebral foramen – transverse processes, – • facets prevents flexion and extension – ______________ of this area of the spine

Lumbar Vertebrae • five lumbar vertebrae – have an enhanced _ • They have

Lumbar Vertebrae • five lumbar vertebrae – have an enhanced _ • They have – _____________ pedicles and laminae – ____________ hatchet-shaped spinous processes, – triangular-shaped vertebral foramen • Orientation of articular facets locks the lumbar vertebrae together to _

Sacrum • Sacrum – five fused vertebrae (S 1 -S 5 • shape the

Sacrum • Sacrum – five fused vertebrae (S 1 -S 5 • shape the _ – It articulates with L 5 superiorly, and with the auricular surfaces of the hip bones – Major markings include • • transverse lines • • dorsal sacral foramina • •

Coccyx • Coccyx (Tailbone) – The coccyx is made up of ___________ that articulate

Coccyx • Coccyx (Tailbone) – The coccyx is made up of ___________ that articulate superiorly with the sacrum

Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) • The thoracic cage is composed of – the _

Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) • The thoracic cage is composed of – the _ – ______________ laterally – __________________ anteriorly

Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) • Functions – Forms a ______________ around the heart, lungs,

Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) • Functions – Forms a ______________ around the heart, lungs, and great blood vessels – Supports the _____________ and upper limbs – Provides attachment for many neck, back, chest, and shoulder muscles – Uses ________________ to lift and depress the thorax during breathing

Sternum (Breastbone) • A dagger-shaped, _ – lies in the anterior midline of the

Sternum (Breastbone) • A dagger-shaped, _ – lies in the anterior midline of the thorax • Results from the fusion of three bones – – Superior: _ – the _ – Inferior: _ • Anatomical landmarks include the jugular (suprasternal) notch, the sternal angle, and the xiphisternal joint

Ribs • There are twelve pair of ribs • All ribs attach _ •

Ribs • There are twelve pair of ribs • All ribs attach _ • The superior 7 pair – – attach directly to the sternum via costal cartilages • Ribs 8 -10 ( – – attach indirectly to the sternum via costal cartilage • Ribs 11 -12 – – have no anterior attachment

Structure of a Typical True Rib • Bowed, flat bone consisting of a _

Structure of a Typical True Rib • Bowed, flat bone consisting of a _

Appendicular Skeleton • The _______________ skeleton is made up of – the bones of

Appendicular Skeleton • The _______________ skeleton is made up of – the bones of the _ – and their _ • – attach the upper limbs to the body trunk • – secures the lower limbs

Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles) • The pectoral girdles consist of the __________ _ and

Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles) • The pectoral girdles consist of the __________ _ and the _ • They provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs • Arrangement allows _

Clavicles (Collarbones) • Slender, doubly curved long bones lying across the _ – The

Clavicles (Collarbones) • Slender, doubly curved long bones lying across the _ – The _______________ end articulates with the scapula – The sternal (medial) end articulates _

Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) • Triangular, flat bones lying on the _ – between the

Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) • Triangular, flat bones lying on the _ – between the _ • Scapulae have three borders and three angles

 • Major markings include the suprascapular notch, the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae, the

• Major markings include the suprascapular notch, the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae, the spine, the acromion, and the coracoid process Figure 7. 22 d

The Upper Limb • The upper limb consists of the – – forearm –

The Upper Limb • The upper limb consists of the – – forearm – hand • Thirty-seven bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb

Arm • The _______________ is the sole bone of the arm • It articulates

Arm • The _______________ is the sole bone of the arm • It articulates with the ________________ at the shoulder, and the radius and ulna at the elbow

Arm • Major markings – Proximal humerus includes the head, anatomical and surgical necks,

Arm • Major markings – Proximal humerus includes the head, anatomical and surgical necks, greater and lesser tubercles, and the intertubercular groove

Humerus of the Arm • Distal humerus includes the – – – medial and

Humerus of the Arm • Distal humerus includes the – – – medial and lateral epicondyles, – the coronoid – • Medial portion includes the – radial groove – deltoid process

Forearm • The bones of the forearm are the _ • They articulate proximally

Forearm • The bones of the forearm are the _ • They articulate proximally with the humerus and _ • They also _________________ proximally and distally at small radioulnar joints • ________________ connects the two bones along their entire length

Ulna • The ulna lies _______ in the forearm and is slightly longer than

Ulna • The ulna lies _______ in the forearm and is slightly longer than the radius • Forms the major portion of the ____________ with the humerus • Its major markings include the olecranon, coronoid process, trochlear notch, radial notch, and the styloid process

Radius • The radius lies opposite __________ the ulna and is thin at its

Radius • The radius lies opposite __________ the ulna and is thin at its proximal end, widened distally • The superior surface of the head articulates with _ • Medially, the head articulates with the _ • Major markings include the radial tuberosity, ulnar notch, and styloid process

Hand • Skeleton of the hand contains – – bones of the palm_ –

Hand • Skeleton of the hand contains – – bones of the palm_ – bones of the fingers _

Carpus (Wrist) • Consists of eight bones – __________, lunate, __________, and pisiform proximally

Carpus (Wrist) • Consists of eight bones – __________, lunate, __________, and pisiform proximally – Trapezium, __________, capitate, and _____________ distally

Metacarpus (Palm) • Five numbered (1 -5) metacarpal bones radiate from the wrist to

Metacarpus (Palm) • Five numbered (1 -5) metacarpal bones radiate from the wrist to form the palm – Their __________________ proximally, and with each other medially and laterally – Heads articulate with _

Phalanges (Fingers) • Each hand contains 14 miniature long bones called phalanges • Fingers

Phalanges (Fingers) • Each hand contains 14 miniature long bones called phalanges • Fingers (digits) are numbered 1 -5, beginning with the _ • Each finger (except the thumb) has three phalanges – _ • The thumb has _

Pelvic Girdle • The hip is formed by a _____________ (os coxae, or coxal)

Pelvic Girdle • The hip is formed by a _____________ (os coxae, or coxal) • Together with the ________________ these bones form the bony pelvis

Pelvic Girdle (Hip) • The pelvis – Attaches the lower limbs to the axial

Pelvic Girdle (Hip) • The pelvis – Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with the strongest ligaments of the body – – Supports the visceral organs of the pelvis

Ilium • The ilium is a large flaring bone that forms the superior region

Ilium • The ilium is a large flaring bone that forms the superior region of the coxal bone • It consists of – – a superior _ • The broad posterolateral surface is called the gluteal surface

Ilium • The __________ articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint) • Major markings include

Ilium • The __________ articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint) • Major markings include the iliac crests, four spines, greater sciatic notch, iliac fossa, arcuate line, and the pelvic brim

Ischium • The ischium forms the posteroinferior part of the hip bone • The

Ischium • The ischium forms the posteroinferior part of the hip bone • The _______________, and the thinner ramus articulates with the _ • Major markings include the ischial spine, lesser sciatic notch, and the ischial tuberosity

Pubis • The pubic bone forms the anterior portion of the hip bone •

Pubis • The pubic bone forms the anterior portion of the hip bone • It articulates with the _ – Major markings include superior and inferior rami, the pubic crest, pubic tubercle, pubic arch, pubic symphysis, and obturator foramen (along with ilium and ischium)

Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure • Female pelvis – Tilted forward, _

Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure • Female pelvis – Tilted forward, _ – True pelvis defines birth canal – Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity • Male pelvis – Tilted less forward – Adapted for support of _ – Cavity of true pelvis is _

Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Characteristic Bone thickness Female Lighter, thinner, and

Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Characteristic Bone thickness Female Lighter, thinner, and smoother Male Heavier, thicker, and more prominent markings Pubic arch/angle 80˚– 90˚ 50˚– 60˚ Acetabula Small; farther apart Large; closer together Sacrum Wider, shorter; sacral curvature is accentuated Narrow, longer; sacral promontory more ventral Coccyx More movable; straighter Less movable; curves ventrally

The Lower Limb • The three segments of the lower limb are the _

The Lower Limb • The three segments of the lower limb are the _ • They carry the weight of the erect body, and are subjected to exceptional forces when one jumps or runs

Femur • The sole bone of the thigh is the femur, the _______________ bone

Femur • The sole bone of the thigh is the femur, the _______________ bone in the body • It articulates ____________ and _

Femur • Major markings include the – head, – fovea capitis – greater and

Femur • Major markings include the – head, – fovea capitis – greater and lesser trochanters – gluteal tuberosity – lateral and medial condyles – Epicondyles – linea aspera – patellar surface, – intercondylar notch Figure 7. 28 b

Leg • The tibia and fibula form the skeleton of the leg • They

Leg • The tibia and fibula form the skeleton of the leg • They are connected to each other by the _ • They articulate with the femur proximally and with the _ • They also articulate with each other via the _

Tibia • __________ of the body from the femur and _ • Major markings

Tibia • __________ of the body from the femur and _ • Major markings include medial and lateral condyles, intercondylar eminence, the tibial tuberosity, anterior crest, medial malleolus, and fibular notch

Fibula • Sticklike bone with slightly expanded ends located _ • Major markings include

Fibula • Sticklike bone with slightly expanded ends located _ • Major markings include the _

Foot • The skeleton of the foot includes the – – – • The

Foot • The skeleton of the foot includes the – – – • The foot supports body weight and acts as a lever to propel the body forward in walking and running

Tarsus • Composed of seven bones that form the posterior half of the foot

Tarsus • Composed of seven bones that form the posterior half of the foot • Body weight is carried _ • Talus articulates with the tibia and fibula superiorly, and the calcaneus inferiorly • Other tarsus bones include the cuboid and navicular, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms

Calcaneus • Forms the _ • Carries the _ • Point of attachment for

Calcaneus • Forms the _ • Carries the _ • Point of attachment for the _________________ of the calf muscles

Metatarsus and Phalanges • _ – Five (1 -5) long bones that articulate with

Metatarsus and Phalanges • _ – Five (1 -5) long bones that articulate with the proximal phalanges – The enlarged head of ____________ forms the “ball of the foot” • Phalanges – The 14 bones of the toes – Each digit has three phalanges except the _