Homeostatic Imbalance Inadequate O 2 delivery to tissues

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Homeostatic Imbalance • – Inadequate O 2 delivery to tissues – Due to a

Homeostatic Imbalance • – Inadequate O 2 delivery to tissues – Due to a variety of causes • Too few _ • Abnormal or _ • Blocked circulation • • Pulmonary _ • Carbon monoxide

CO 2 Transport • CO 2 is transported in the blood in three forms

CO 2 Transport • CO 2 is transported in the blood in three forms – 7 to 10% _ – 20% bound to _ (carbaminohemoglobin) – 70% transported as _____________________ in plasma

Transport and Exchange of CO 2 • CO 2 combines with water to form

Transport and Exchange of CO 2 • CO 2 combines with water to form ___________________ (H 2 CO 3), which quickly dissociates: CO 2 Carbon dioxide + H 2 O Water H 2 CO 3 Carbonic acid H+ Hydrogen ion + HCO 3– Bicarbonate ion • Most of the above occurs in _________, where ___________________ reversibly and _____________catalyzes the reaction

Transport and Exchange of CO 2 • In systemic capillaries – HCO 3– ___________________fro

Transport and Exchange of CO 2 • In systemic capillaries – HCO 3– ___________________fro m RBCs into the plasma – The chloride shift occurs: • outrush of HCO 3– from the RBCs _

Transport and Exchange of CO 2 • In pulmonary capillaries – HCO 3– moves

Transport and Exchange of CO 2 • In pulmonary capillaries – HCO 3– moves into the RBCs and binds _ – H 2 CO 3 is split by _____________________ into CO 2 and water – CO 2 diffuses into the alveoli

Haldane Effect • The amount of _________________ is affected by the _ • The

Haldane Effect • The amount of _________________ is affected by the _ • The lower the Po 2 and hemoglobin saturation with O 2, the _

Haldane Effect • At the tissues, as more carbon dioxide enters the blood –

Haldane Effect • At the tissues, as more carbon dioxide enters the blood – More oxygen _ – As Hb. O 2 releases O 2, it _____________________ with CO 2 to form carbaminohemoglobin

Influence of CO 2 on Blood p. H • HCO 3– in plasma is

Influence of CO 2 on Blood p. H • HCO 3– in plasma is __________________ of the carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system • If H+ concentration in blood rises, excess H+ is removed _ • If H+ concentration begins to drop, _ CO 2 Carbon dioxide + H 2 O Water H 2 CO 3 Carbonic acid H+ Hydrogen ion + HCO 3– Bicarbonate ion

Influence of CO 2 on Blood p. H • Changes in _________________ can also

Influence of CO 2 on Blood p. H • Changes in _________________ can also alter blood p. H – For example, _________________ breathing ___________________ in the blood, causing p. H to drop • Changes in ventilation can be used to adjust p. H when it is disturbed by metabolic factors

Control of Respiration • Involves neurons in the ___________________ of the medulla and pons

Control of Respiration • Involves neurons in the ___________________ of the medulla and pons

Medullary Respiratory Centers 1. Dorsal respiratory group (DRG) – Near the root of _

Medullary Respiratory Centers 1. Dorsal respiratory group (DRG) – Near the root of _ – Integrates input from peripheral stretch and _

Medullary Respiratory Centers 2. Ventral respiratory group (VRG) – Rhythm-generating and integrative center –

Medullary Respiratory Centers 2. Ventral respiratory group (VRG) – Rhythm-generating and integrative center – Sets ________________ (12– 15 breaths/minute) – Inspiratory neurons excite the inspiratory muscles via the _ – Expiratory neurons ______________ the inspiratory neurons

Pontine Respiratory Centers • Influence and modify activity of the _ • Smooth out

Pontine Respiratory Centers • Influence and modify activity of the _ • Smooth out ________________ between inspiration and expiration and vice versa

Genesis of the Respiratory Rhythm • Not well understood • Most widely accepted hypothesis

Genesis of the Respiratory Rhythm • Not well understood • Most widely accepted hypothesis – _____________________ _ of two sets of interconnected neuronal networks in the medulla sets the rhythm

Depth and Rate of Breathing • __________________- is determined by how actively the respiratory

Depth and Rate of Breathing • __________________- is determined by how actively the respiratory center stimulates the _ • _______________is determined by _______________-the inspiratory center is active • Both are _________________ in response to changing body demands

Chemical Factors • Influence of Pco 2: – If Pco 2 levels rise (______________),

Chemical Factors • Influence of Pco 2: – If Pco 2 levels rise (______________), CO 2 accumulates in the brain – CO 2 is hydrated; • resulting ______________________ dissociates, releasing H+ – H+ stimulates the _________________________ of the brain stem • Chemoreceptors synapse with the respiratory regulatory centers, increasing the depth and rate of breathing

Depth and Rate of Breathing: PCO 2 • ____________________ __ – increased depth and

Depth and Rate of Breathing: PCO 2 • ____________________ __ – increased depth and rate of breathing that: – Quickly ____________________ from the blood – Occurs in response to _ • Elevated Carbon dioxide levels • Though a rise CO 2 acts as the original stimulus, control of breathing at rest is regulated _

Depth and Rate of Breathing: PCO 2 • – ____________________breathing due to abnormally _________

Depth and Rate of Breathing: PCO 2 • – ____________________breathing due to abnormally _________ levels – _________________ (breathing cessation) may occur until PCO 2 levels rise

Chemical Factors • Influence of Po 2 – Peripheral chemoreceptors in the _ •

Chemical Factors • Influence of Po 2 – Peripheral chemoreceptors in the _ • When excited, they cause the respiratory centers _ • Substantial drops in ____________ (to 60 mm Hg) must occur in order to stimulate increased ventilation

Chemical Factors • Influence of arterial p. H – Can modify respiratory _____________________ even

Chemical Factors • Influence of arterial p. H – Can modify respiratory _____________________ even if CO 2 and O 2 levels are normal – Decreased p. H may reflect • • Accumulation of _ • Excess ____________________ in patients with diabetes mellitus – Respiratory system controls will attempt to raise the p. H by _

Summary of Chemical Factors • • Normally blood Po 2 affects breathing only indirectly

Summary of Chemical Factors • • Normally blood Po 2 affects breathing only indirectly by influencing peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity to changes in Pco 2

Summary of Chemical Factors • When arterial Po 2 falls below 60 mm Hg,

Summary of Chemical Factors • When arterial Po 2 falls below 60 mm Hg, it becomes the major stimulus for respiration (via the peripheral chemoreceptors) • Changes in arterial p. H resulting from CO 2 retention or metabolic factors act indirectly through the peripheral chemoreceptors

Influence of Higher Brain Centers • __________________ controls act through the _________________ to modify

Influence of Higher Brain Centers • __________________ controls act through the _________________ to modify rate and depth of respiration – Example: breath holding that occurs in anger or gasping with pain • A rise in ____________________ acts to increase respiratory rate • _______________________ are direct signals from the cerebral motor cortex that bypass medullary controls – Example: _________________ breath holding

Pulmonary Irritant Reflexes • Receptors in the bronchioles _ • Promote ___________________ of air

Pulmonary Irritant Reflexes • Receptors in the bronchioles _ • Promote ___________________ of air passages • Receptors in the larger airways mediate the _

Inflation Reflex • Hering-Breuer Reflex – ______________________ __ in the pleurae and airways are

Inflation Reflex • Hering-Breuer Reflex – ______________________ __ in the pleurae and airways are stimulated by lung inflation • Inhibitory signals to the medullary respiratory centers end inhalation and _ • Acts more as a ____________________ response than a normal regulatory mechanism

Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise • Adjustments are geared to both the _ • – Increase

Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise • Adjustments are geared to both the _ • – Increase in ventilation (10 to 20 fold) in response to metabolic needs • • Pco 2, Po 2, and p. H remain surprisingly ____________________ during exercise

Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise • Three neural factors cause increase in ventilation as exercise begins

Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise • Three neural factors cause increase in ventilation as exercise begins – Psychological stimuli • _________________of exercise – Simultaneous ______________________ ___ of skeletal muscles and respiratory centers – Exictatory impulses reaching respiratory centers

Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise • As exercise ends – _____________________ suddenly as the three neural

Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise • As exercise ends – _____________________ suddenly as the three neural factors shut off

Respiratory Adjustments: High Altitude • Quick travel to altitudes above 8000 feet may produce

Respiratory Adjustments: High Altitude • Quick travel to altitudes above 8000 feet may produce symptoms of _ – Headaches, shortness of breath, nausea, and dizziness – In severe cases, _

Acclimatization to High Altitude • Acclimatization: respiratory and hematopoietic adjustments to altitude – Chemoreceptors

Acclimatization to High Altitude • Acclimatization: respiratory and hematopoietic adjustments to altitude – Chemoreceptors become ______________________ to Pco 2 when Po 2 declines – Substantial decline in Po 2 directly stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors – Result: • minute ventilation increases and ___________________________ to 2– 3 L/min higher than at sea level

Acclimatization to High Altitude • Decline in blood O 2 stimulates the __________________ to

Acclimatization to High Altitude • Decline in blood O 2 stimulates the __________________ to accelerate production of _ • ___________________ to provide long-term compensation

Homeostatic Imbalances • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – Exemplified by _ – _____________________decrease

Homeostatic Imbalances • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – Exemplified by _ – _____________________decrease in the ability to _ – Other common features • History of ________________-in 80% of patients • – labored breathing (“air hunger”) • Coughing and frequent _ • Most victims develop respiratory failure (hypoventilation) accompanied by _

Homeostatic Imbalances • Asthma – Characterized by coughing, ________________ , wheezing, and _ –

Homeostatic Imbalances • Asthma – Characterized by coughing, ________________ , wheezing, and _ – _____________________ of the airways precedes bronchospasms – Airway inflammation is an ______________________ caused by release of __________________, production of Ig. E, and recruitment of inflammatory cells – Airways thickened with _________________________ magnify the effect of bronchospasms

Homeostatic Imbalances • – Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis – Symptoms

Homeostatic Imbalances • – Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis – Symptoms include • • • weight loss • racking cough • – Treatment entails a 12 -month course of antibiotics

Homeostatic Imbalances • Lung cancer – Leading cause of cancer deaths in North America

Homeostatic Imbalances • Lung cancer – Leading cause of cancer deaths in North America – ________of all cases are the result of smoking – The three most common types 1. _____________________ (~20– 40% of cases) in bronchial epithelium 2. ____________________ (~40% of cases) originates in peripheral lung areas 3. ____________________ (~20% of cases) contains lymphocyte-like cells that originate in the primary bronchi and subsequently metastasize