HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA

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HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Chapter 15 THE GREAT DEPRESSION Section

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Chapter 15 THE GREAT DEPRESSION Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Section 2: Hard Times Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Chapter 16 1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Objectives: l

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Objectives: l Why did financial experts issue warnings about business practices during the 1920 s? l Why did the stock market crash in 1929? l How did the banking crisis and subsequent business failures signal the beginning of the Great Depression? l What were the main causes of the Great Depression? 2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Warnings about

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Warnings about business practices l farm crisis l “sick” industries l consumers’ reliance on credit l stock speculation 3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Reasons for

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Reasons for the stock market crash of 1929 l Economic factors such as rising interest rates began to worry investors. l Investors sold stocks. l Stock prices dropped sharply, fueling panic. l Heavy selling continued. 4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Events signaling

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Events signaling the Great Depression l Banks failed due to heavy defaults, margin calls, and heavy withdrawals. l Bank failures deprived businesses of necessary resources and customers. l Businesses closed and workers lost their jobs. 5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Causes of

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Prosperity Shattered Causes of the Great Depression l The global economic crisis decreased exports. l Unequal distribution of income reduced the total purchasing power available in the economy. l Consumer debt undermined individuals and increased economic chaos. 6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

SECTION 1 Prosperity Shattered Question: Why did the stock market crash in 1929?

SECTION 1 Prosperity Shattered Question: Why did the stock market crash in 1929?

SECTION 1 Prosperity Shattered Factors That Caused the Stock Market Crash 1. economic factors

SECTION 1 Prosperity Shattered Factors That Caused the Stock Market Crash 1. economic factors such as rising interest rates worry investors 2. investors sell stocks 3. stock prices plunge 4. heavy sales continue The Crash

What do you think Today? • What does this graph say about the differences

What do you think Today? • What does this graph say about the differences in the Great Depression and the stock market down turn in 2008? • Is there Bias? • What factors would make this different? • Do you think this graph is Skewed? • Lets look at the source!

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Objectives: l

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Objectives: l How did unemployment during the Great Depression affect the lives of American workers? l What hardships did urban and rural residents face during the depression? l How did the Great Depression affect family life and the attitudes of Americans? l How did popular culture offer an escape from the Great Depression? 10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Unemployment during

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Unemployment during the Great Depression l rose sharply l created severe financial problems l created severe emotional problems 11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Unemployment Graph 12 HOLT, RINEHART AND

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Unemployment Graph 12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Unemployment Graph 1. Approx. what was

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Unemployment Graph 1. Approx. what was the unemployment rate in 1929? 2. In what year did unemployment peek? 3. Why did unemployment jump in 1937? 13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Hardships during

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Hardships during the depression l poverty l diminished expectations l low prices or lack of market for farm products l farm foreclosures l hunger l homelessness l deportation for aliens 14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Personal Income WWII 15 HOLT, RINEHART

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Personal Income WWII 15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Graph Questions 1. How long did

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Graph Questions 1. How long did it take for incomes to reach their previous high in 1929? 2. What event helped Increase employment? 3. What caused the Dip in income in 1937? 16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Great Depression’s

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Great Depression’s effects on family life and attitudes of Americans l fractured some families, forced others to band together for survival l divorce rates up l birth rates down l many psychological problems 17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Popular culture

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: Hard Times Popular culture during the depression l movies l radio l comic books and popular novels 18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

SECTION 2 Hard Times Question: How did the depression affect both urban and rural

SECTION 2 Hard Times Question: How did the depression affect both urban and rural residents?

SECTION 2 Hard Times The Great Depression in the City and the Country RURAL

SECTION 2 Hard Times The Great Depression in the City and the Country RURAL URBAN • received some aid from charities • formed mutual-aid organizations • experienced poverty • experienced hunger • experienced diminished expectations • experienced homelessness • faced lower prices for food products • forced to let crops rot and kill animals • faced farm foreclosures • Mexican aliens and immigrants faced deportation

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Objectives: l

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Objectives: l Why did President Hoover oppose government-sponsored direct relief for individuals during the Great Depression? l How did the Hoover administration attempt to solve the depression’s economic problems, and how successful were these efforts? l How did radicals and veterans respond to Hoover’s policies? l Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt such a popular candidate in the 1932 election? 21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Hoover’s opposition

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Hoover’s opposition to government relief during the Great Depression President Hoover believed that individuals and businesses should be self-reliant and that government help would create a bureaucracy. 22 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Hoover’s attempts

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Hoover’s attempts to solve economic problems l Public-works programs such as building Boulder Dam failed to relieve entrenched depression. l The Federal Farm Board, which made loans, established cooperatives, and bought surplus goods, avoided some foreclosures, but failed to end the farm crisis. l The Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which loaned taxpayer money to stabilize industries, helped some companies avoid bankruptcy, but used money for businesses, not people. 23 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Radical response

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Radical response to Hoover’s policies l staged protests l became involved legally Veterans’ response l gathered in Washington D. C. to demand payment of their pension bonuses 24 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Reasons for

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Hoover’s Policies Reasons for Roosevelt’s popularity l Roosevelt’s optimism and enthusiasm contrasted with Hoover’s gloom. l As governor of New York, Roosevelt had designed new relief programs. 25 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Chapter 16 THE NEW DEAL Section

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Chapter 16 THE NEW DEAL Section 1: Restoring Hope Section 2: New Challenges Section 3: Life in the New Deal Era Section 4: The New Deal and the Arts 26 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope Objectives: l

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope Objectives: l How did the New Deal provide relief for the unemployed? l How did the New Deal promote industrial and agricultural recovery? l What were the New Deal goals for the Tennessee Valley region? l How did the Roosevelt administration address the concerns of African Americans and American Indians? 27 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope New Deal

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope New Deal relief for the unemployed l The FERA provided direct federal aid. l The CWA created jobs such as raking leaves and picking up litter. l The CCC put young men to work in parks and forests. 28 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation Section 1: Restoring Hope IN THE MODERN ERA New Deal

HOLT The American Nation Section 1: Restoring Hope IN THE MODERN ERA New Deal contributions to industrial and agricultural recovery l NIRA passed to stimulate business activity and reduce unemployment l PWA initiated public works projects. l NRA encouraged businesses to draw up codes to regulate hours, prices, production levels, and wages. l Agricultural Adjustment Act created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which paid farmers subsidies to grow less. 29 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope New Deal

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope New Deal goals for the Tennessee Valley region l provide flood control and combat soil erosion l provide electricity and improve the standard of living l combat malaria l combat illiteracy l provide recreational facilities 30 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

SECTION 1 Restoring Hope Question: What were the new Deal’s goals for the Tennessee

SECTION 1 Restoring Hope Question: What were the new Deal’s goals for the Tennessee River Valley?

SECTION 1 Restoring Hope provide flood control provide electricity provide recreational facilities TVA Goals

SECTION 1 Restoring Hope provide flood control provide electricity provide recreational facilities TVA Goals for the Tennessee River Valley combat malaria improve standard of living combat illiteracy combat soil erosion

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope The New

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope The New Deal and African Americans l African Americans were appointed to government posts. l Federal Council on Negro Affairs was established. l Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt resigned her membership in the DAR and arranged for Marian Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial to protest DAR actions. 33 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope The New

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: Restoring Hope The New Deal and American Indians l John Collier was appointed as commissioner of Indian Affairs. l The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was passed. 34 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Objectives: l

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Objectives: l What were the criticisms aimed at the New Deal? l How did the Second New Deal enable President Roosevelt to win re-election easily in 1936? l How did Roosevelt try to prevent the Supreme Court from overturning his programs? l How did the Second New Deal benefit labor and agriculture? l What was Roosevelt’s recession, and what effect did it have? 35 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Criticism of

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Criticism of the New Deal l claims that the New Deal was destroying the Constitution and free enterprise l accusations of “irresponsible ravings against millionaires and businessmen” l desire for pensions for Americans over 60 l desire for government to nationalize banks and return to the silver standard l desire for the Share-Our-Wealth program 36 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges The Second

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges The Second New Deal and Roosevelt’s re -election in 1936 l included a broad range of programs, such as the WPA, the NYA, the Social Security Act, the REA, and the Revenue Act of 1935 l won FDR support from many different Americans, including African Americans, farmers, labor union members, unemployed workers, and many Republicans 37 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Roosevelt and

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Roosevelt and the Supreme Court Roosevelt attempted to prevent the Supreme Court from overturning his programs by asking Congress for the power to appoint one new justice for each justice over 70 years old. This was called “packing” the Court. 38 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Second New

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Second New Deal benefits to labor and agriculture l The Wagner-Connery Act guaranteed labor’s right to organize and bargain collectively. l The FSA provided low-interest, long-term loans to help tenant farmers and sharecroppers buy land. l The FSA also established camps providing shelter and medical care for migrant farmworkers. l The AAA of 1938 authorized subsidies to farmers who practiced soil conservation and crop reduction. 39 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Roosevelt’s recession

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 2: New Challenges Roosevelt’s recession l In response to criticism about excessive spending, FDR reduced relief programs and public-works projects. l Recession occurred; factories closed and unemployment rose. l In response, FDR and Congress increased government spending. l As a result, unemployment declined and production increased. 40 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Life in the New

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Life in the New Deal Era Objectives: l What were the effects of the Dust Bowl? l How did the New Deal agencies use photography to promote their goals? l How effective was the New Deal in ending the Great Depression? 41 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Life in the New

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Life in the New Deal Era Effects of the Dust Bowl l Many farmers lost their land. l Dust Bowl farmers migrated west in search of work harvesting crops. l Migrants to the West Coast faced stiff competition for jobs. 42 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Life in the New

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Life in the New Deal Era Use of photography to promote New Deal goals l New Deal workers hoped that photographs of suffering Americans would arouse support for the New Deal attempts at relief. l Photographs were used in government pamphlets. l Photographs illustrating the work of the government were published in magazines. 43 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Life in the New

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 3: Life in the New Deal Era The New Deal’s effectiveness l l l 44 not completely effective in ending the Great Depression provided jobs and improved people’s sense of self-worth helped modernize the South broke down class barriers brought electricity to rural areas boosted family incomes so children could stay in school HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

SECTION 3 Life in the New Deal Era Question: How did the New Deal

SECTION 3 Life in the New Deal Era Question: How did the New Deal improve the lives of ordinary Americans?

SECTION 3 Life in the New Deal Era boosted family incomes so that children

SECTION 3 Life in the New Deal Era boosted family incomes so that children could stay in school helped modernize the South broke down class barriers brought electricity to rural areas New Deal Programs provided jobs, improved people’s sense of self worth

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and the Arts Objectives: l How did Federal Project Number One aid writers and artists? l What common themes emerged in the novels, films, and plays of the New Deal Era? l How did music evolve in the 1930 s? l What subject matter influenced American painters in the 1930 s? 47 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and the Arts Federal Project Number One l The Federal Writers’ Project hired writers to produce a number of works. l The Federal Theater Project hired theater artists to produce plays. l The Federal Music Project hired musicians to present musical productions. l The Federal Arts Project hired artists and designers to paint murals, produce posters, and teach art. 48 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and the Arts Common themes in novels during the New Deal Era l poverty and economic chaos l depression-era experiences of ethnic minorities 49 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and the Arts Common themes in films during the New Deal Era l “escapist” themes l exploration of social issues 50 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and the Arts Common themes in plays during the New Deal Era l labor and class struggles l upper-class greed l traditional American values 51 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and the Arts Evolution of music in the 1930 s l use of folk songs and folktales l popularization of country music, gospel music, jazz, and swing 52 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and

HOLT The American Nation IN THE MODERN ERA Section 4: The New Deal and the Arts Influences on American painters l Jacob Lawrence: African American heroes l Georgia O’Keeffe: the southwestern landscape l the regionalists: rural United States l Grandma Moses: folk art 53 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

CHAPTER 16 Chapter Wrap-Up Can you answer the following? ��How did the Roosevelt administration

CHAPTER 16 Chapter Wrap-Up Can you answer the following? ��How did the Roosevelt administration expand the role of the federal government in regulating the economy? ��Why might the Supreme Court have declared some New Deal measures unconstitutional? ��What effects did migration from the Dust Bowl have on the West Coast? �