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HIV �HIV causes AIDS. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. � It breaks down the immune system — our body's protection against disease. �HIV causes people to become sick with infections that normally wouldn't affect them. �AIDS is short for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of HIV disease.
Meaning AIDS is the acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A= Acquired: The condition occurs after birth and is not passed on genetically I= Immune: The body’s immune system D= Deficiency: A lack, degeneration, decline S=Syndrome: Group of Symptoms AIDS means having a group of symptoms acquired from a deficiency in the body’s immune system
History of HIV/AIDS �Till 1970 - early 1980: It was uncommon � 1981: Discovered in US �Then it spreads to Africa and other countries �In US & Europe, the disease was first seen among men who had sex with other men
Causes of AIDS �AIDS is caused by a virus known as HIV �Once HIV enters the body, it lives and grows in the blood cells and body fluids of the infected persons �It infects the white blood cells
Symptoms �Some people develop HIV symptoms shortly after being infected. But it usually takes more than 10 years. �There are several stages of HIV disease. �The first HIV symptoms may include swollen glands in the throat, armpit, or groin. �Other early HIV symptoms include slight fever, headaches, fatigue, and muscle aches. �These symptoms may last for only a few weeks. �Then there are usually no HIV symptoms for many years. That is why it can be hard to know if you have HIV.
�AIDS symptoms appear in the most advanced stage of HIV disease. In addition to a badly damaged immune system, a person with AIDS may also have �thrush — a thick, whitish coating of the tongue or mouth that is caused by a yeast infection and sometimes accompanied by a sore throat �periods of extreme and unexplained tiredness that may be combined with headaches, light headedness, and/or dizziness �quick loss of more than 10 pounds of weight that is not due to increased physical exercise or dieting
�unexplained bleeding from growths on the skin, from the mouth, nose, anus, or vagina, or from any opening in the body �frequent or unusual skin rashes �severe numbness or pain in the hands or feet, the loss of muscle control and reflex, paralysis, or loss of muscular strength �confusion, personality change, or decreased mental abilities
How HIV spreads �HIV is transmitted in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common ways HIV is spread are by �Having vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom with someone who has HIV/AIDS �Sharing needles or syringes with someone who has HIV/AIDS �Being deeply punctured with a needle or surgical instrument contaminated with HIV �Getting HIV-infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions into open wounds or sores
Prevention �The surest way is to abstain from sexual intercourse and from sharing needles �Many people have been infected with HIV by sharing needles. If you are using needles for steroids, hormones, or other drugs �Don't share personal items that may have blood on them. �This includes toothbrushes, razors, needles for piercing or tattooing, and blades for cutting or scarring.
�If you choose to have sex, have safer sex to reduce the risk of exchanging blood, semen, or vaginal fluids with your sex partner(s).
Impact on Individual and Families �The psychological burden and stress affect their overall mental health, and depression is common among parents and caregivers as they struggle with financial limitations �Social Stigma �HIV can also have an effect on relationships between family members.
�Chronic illness in the parent can change family roles causing anger or guilt. �Family members can become isolated. �The ability of HIV-positive parents and caregivers to care for their children is also impaired
�HIV/AIDS can also affect children’s normal childhood. �Children from families living with HIV/AIDS often have to deal with psychosocial stress, an ill caregiver, reduced parenting capacity, a shift in family structure, financial deprivation, and stigma and discrimination. �These challenges can lead to emotional and behavioral changes in children, such as depression and delinquency.
HIV/AIDS and Women �Source of Infection �Lack of Control over husband �Poor access to health care facilities �Blame �Isolation and Stigma �Delay in diagnosis
Rights of the PLHA �Response to Discrimination at workplace �Response to discrimination in education �Response to maintaining confidentiality