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HIV/AIDS and WOMEN Northern AIDS Society 33 Peasant St. , Truro NS B 2 N 3 R 5 902 -893 -0931
Copy Right The Following is a Product of the Northern AIDS Connection Society in Truro, Nova Scotia. All information is from current research as of April 2009. All resources for both pictures and information to follow on Work Cited Slide. Copy Right in effect May 2009. Produced by: Amanda Nicholson Edited by: Al Mc. Nutt Northern AIDS Connection Director
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immuno. Deficiency Syndrome
What is HIV and AIDS? HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, the body’s built in defence system. Many people experience flu-like symptoms (fever, sore throat, swollen glands) when first exposed. However, some people experience no symptoms at all. The virus can lay undetected in the system for many years. Over time the immune system becomes weak and illness can occur. HIV turns into AIDS left untreated for an extended period of time where the bodies’ immune system becomes weakened and can no longer defend itself. One cannot tell if a person has HIV - it is important to take necessary precautions.
HIV is transmitted Through body fluids (semen, vaginal fluid, blood, breast milk, saliva, sweat, tears and urine) High Risk: • Blood • Semen Low Risk: • Vaginal fluid • Saliva • Breast milk • Sweat • These fluids need to get into the bloodstream through an entry point ( tear, cut or sore ) • Tears • Urine • These fluids have a low % of HIV present and are classified as low risk • To transmit there needs to be HIV present, an entry point and high enough % Practice SAFER SEX and SAFER INJECTING!
Myths and Misconceptions: You CANNOT get HIV from: Coughs or Sneezes Toilet seats or water fountains Swimming pools Insects or animals Forks, spoons, cups, food Bed sheets or towels Talking, shaking hands, working or eating with someone Hugs or Kisses Donating blood (Since November 1985, all blood products in Canada have been screened for HIV).
SAFER SEX: * Latex , polyurethane condoms or a female CONDOM properly used will reduce the risk of transmission. Most condoms are latex and recent studies indicate that many females are experiencing an allergic reaction to latex. Polyurethane condoms are now available. Oral sex - use a non lubricated or flavoured condom or dental dam. Non penetrative forms of sexual stimulation or “outercourse”: • Mutual Masturbation • Sensual Massage • Hugging • Fingering • Petting • Erotic Fantasizing • Phone Sex • Cybersex
ORAL SEX: ORAL SEX is considered low risk because the mouth is a hostile environment for HIV to survive. It is still important to take necessary PRECATUIONS. It is important not to floss or brush for 30 mins before ORAL SEX because when you floss or brush, entry points can be created. It is a good idea not to participate in unprotected ORAL SEX within 12 -24 hrs of having dental work.
SAFER INJECTING: To reduce your chances of contracting HIV practice SAFE INJECTING by : - Using a new needle for every injection - Never share needles or equipment - Get new needles and equipment from a NEEDLE EXCHANGE. If you do not have access to a needle exchange: Clean the Needle by: • Filling it with sterile (boiled) water, shake it for at least 30 seconds, • Fill in with bleach and water mixture, shake it for at least 30 seconds, • . Fill it with sterile (boiled) water again, shake it for at least 30 seconds, • Repeat this process 3 times.
If you think that you have been exposed to HIV: It is important to get tested! You need to request a blood test. They cannot conduct a test without permission. The HIV test (a simple blood test) If you have been exposed to HIV your body will produce antibodies. There may not be enough antibodies evident in the blood for 8 to 14 weeks or 3 months after exposure.
UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS It is important to be aware of and practice UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS are a set of guidelines that have been implemented to keep everyone safe from exposure and discrimination. HIV does not discriminate… It truly does affect us all!
Good Hygiene: * Remember to wash between fingers and fingernails. * Washing your hands with SOAP and WARM WATER for at least 20 seconds. Refrain from sharing personal items (i. e. razors and toothbrushes) When cleaning surfaces use 1 PART BLEACH IN 9 PARTS WATER. Use BLEACH to kill germs Wash all fruits and vegetables Wear RUBBER Or LATEX Or VINYL GLOVES when required. before eating.
Put used NEEDLES in biohazard sharps container. Needle Care: Hold the sharp end of the NEEDLE away from yourself. If you Stick your Self : Never remove the needle from the syringe. Never put the cap back on the needle, BEND, or CUT the NEEDLE. Remove the needle Wash the area with SOAP and WARM WATER Call your: DOCTOR , NURSE or EMERGENCY SERVICES(911) and follow their instructions
Living with HIV/AIDS: When an individual is living with HIV they are referred to as HIV POSITIVE or HIV+. Generally, people who are HIV+ can live a long time with few symptoms and lead productive lives when receiving CARE and TREATMENT. Living with HIV can create stress, depression, and anxiety. Sometimes individuals get involved in drug and alcohol use. Along with regular medical treatment it is important to seek other options such as COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES. Comp. Therapy include but are not limited too: • Counselling or Therapy • Massage or Reflexology • Yoga or Tai Chi or Reiki • Sweat Lodges or Healing Circles • Smudge Ceremonies • Meditation or Visualizations or Naturopath • Shiatsu or Qi Gong • Writing in a journal • Vitamins or Herbs or Health foods It is important to eat well, exercise, and rest when living with HIV.
ANTIRETROVIRALS: Medications that treat HIV. The question is when to start treatment. ANTIRETROVIRAL treatment is often called: ART, for Antiretroviral Therapy, or HARRT, for Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. If you are diagnosed with HIV it does not mean you need to take medications right away, as long as your immune system is capable of fighting off infection. All HIV+ individuals should work with their health care team to determine the best time to begin treatment.
CD 4 COUNT: CD 4 COUNT and VIRAL LOAD are checked on a regular basis CD 4 cells in your immune system organize the fight against an attacking germ and/or virus. A regular CD 4 COUNT is somewhere between 600 to 1, 200 cells/mm of blood. HIV will lower your CD 4 COUNT Once your COUNT is 200 or less you are diagnosed with having full blown AIDS. HIV destroys your CD 4 CELLS. . When your CD 4 cells are depleted your body becomes weakened and more susceptible to infection.
VIRAL LOAD : The VIRAL LOAD indicates the percentage of HIV in the system. If the treatment is successful the VIRAL LOAD will lower to “undetectable” The intention is to lower the viral load to an undetectable level. This means that the virus is being suppressed. You are not cured. There is no Cure for HIV or AIDS.
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS Are infections that often occur when the immune system is weakened. Types of opportunistic infections are: Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Toxoplasmosis Cytomegalovirus Mycobacterium Avium Complex Karposi Sarcoma Types of opportunistic infections in women are: Vaginal Yeast Infection Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Cervical Cancer Bacterial Pneumonia If you are diagnosed with HIV it’s important to reduce the amount of stress in your life.
Am I HIV FREE? In order to be classified as HIV or AIDS free you need to have 2 negative HIV antibody blood tests with at least 6 months in between them. Both you and your partner are not free of HIV or AIDS without 2 negative test results 6 months apart.
RISKY ACTIVITIES: It is possible for any female to be exposed to HIV when she is involved in RISKY ACTIVITIES. Risky Activities include: - Unprotected Sexual Activity. ( ORAL, VAGINAL or ANAL) -Sharing needles or drug using equipment -Being born or breastfed by a person who has HIV Lesbians or women to women relationships are considered to be low risk.
HIV & WOMEN: Health Canada Reported, that the number of WOMEN living with HIV is INCREASEING (Females aging from 15 - 25). In 2005, 25. 4% of the HIV/AIDS population are women compared to 9. 5% in 1996. 45% of IDU (Injection Drug Users) testify to participating in the commercial sex trade. 92% of these women reported using a condom with male clients. However, almost none used a condom with their causal or frequent partners. In all reported cases of HIV and women: 67. 9% were attributed from heterosexual contact 23. 3% were from injection drug use In 2006, WOMEN counted for 27. 8% of all AIDS cases in CANADA.
HIV+ WOMEN and COMMON CHANGES: PERIOD CHANGES: - Pain may increase or decrease - More or fewer periods - Heavier or lighter menstrual flow VAGINAL YEAST INFECTIONS: itching and/or burning around or in the vagina. Avoid consuming sugar and alcohol. PAP TESTS: are important because they can detect changes in the cervix because of infection with HPV (Human Papillomavirus) SEXUALLY TRANSITTED INFECTIONS or STI’s: HIV lowers your Immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to infection. Untreated STIs can lead to serious Pelvic Inflammatory Disease or PID. If you have been exposed to an STI , you run the risk of contracting HIV.
PREGNANCIES: HIV tests are a good first step for couples who are thinking about starting a family. Your status could help you in your decision making. There are low HIV rates and risks with ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION or IN VITRO FERTILIAZATION. In Canada there are rights and guidelines that need to be followed. Sperm from a donor bank and/or from a known donor needs to be: tested and screened for HIV and STIs.
HIV+ and Pregnancies: It is possible for an HIV+ mother to give birth to a child and lower the risk of HIV transmission by taking treatment during the third trimester of the pregnancy With treatment: approx. 2 HIV+ women in 100 will give birth to a child with HIV. It’s important to: Avoid or lower your usage during pregnancies of: - Illegal Drugs like: crack, heroin, or others - Unprotected Sex Without treatment: 25 women in 100 will give birth to a child with HIV can be passed from MOTHER to CHILD: -in pregnancy, in the uterus -during the birthing process -breastfeeding Your Children cannot catch HIV through daily contact.
Telling Others That You Are HIV+: It is always your choice… although, it can be beneficial to tell someone. You may need support and someone to talk too. Some mothers tell their children while others do not. You might want to ask yourself: Is it worth it? Will they understand? How much stress will it cause?
HIV and Your RIGHTS: You have the right to PRIVACY and CONFIDENTIALITY and the RESPONSIBILITY to disclose your status needs great consideration. Be aware of HIV and the Law. Your children cannot be removed or threatened to be taken from you because of your HIV status.
HIV Disclosure and Legal Issues: There have been cases where HIV+ individuals have been charged and convicted of serious crimes for not disclosing their status and placing someone at risk. There have been cases where women have refused to accept medication during pregnancy and have been charged. It’s important to know: what the law says and what it does not say about your rights and obligations to disclose your statues. For more information go to: www. catie. ca www. aidslaw. ca
Daycare for Your HIV+ Child: -All Daycare or Childcare providers are supposed to provide fair and equal service. They are supposed to follow UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS. -It’s your choice to tell the centre or provider whether or not your child has HIV. It is unlikely that your child will spread HIV at the daycare or school. Some questions to ask yourself are: v. Can you get there easily? v. What about Medication? v. Is the Environment safe? Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) Reported as of December 31, 2006 there were 20, 669 AIDS cases with age reported. Of the 20, 669 cases there were 729 (3. 5%) youth aged 10 to 24 years.
HIV and AIDS Globally: North America: 1. 0 Million Caribbean: 440, 000 Latin America: 1. 7 Million Western Europe: 610, 000 Eastern Europe and Central Asia: 1. 4 Million North Africa and Middle East: 540, 000 Sub-Saharan Africa: 25. 4 Million South and South-East Asia: 7. 1 Million Oceania: 35, 000 Approx. 40 million with HIV/AIDS WORLDWIDE. In 2002, HIV became the leading cause of death for those aged 15 to 59 worldwide.
Women Around the In each region of the world, the number of women Globe: Ghana: 1 man to 9 women diagnosed. Zimbabwe and South Africa: 40% of young women are HIV+. East Africa: decline in HIV in pregnant women from urban areas. West and Central Africa: levels are stable at 5% or lower. Southern Africa: 30% of the global population. Sub-Saharan Africa: 10 men to 13 women diagnosed. living with HIV has increased.
Taking CARE of Your SELF: Find a doctor that you trust and has experience Eat healthy and a variety of foods Lower stress level Lower use of alcohol and drugs Find and Accept Support