- Slides: 13
HISTORY OF RUSSIA
History of Russia 1. Catherine II and the servile absolute system 2. Paul I, Alexandr I, Nicholas I: military service and autocratic state 3. The «Golden Age» of Russian culture 4. Russian Society, Law and Economy in XIX century Russian Empire in 1760 – 1860: Rise and decline of autocracy Literature 1. Bartlet, R. A History of Russia. 2005. pp. 115 – 153. 2. The Cambridge History of Russia Volume 2: Imperial Russia, 1689– 1917. 2006. 3. Riasanovsky, Nicholas and Mark Steinberg. A History of Russia (various editions). 4. Kliuchevskii, V. O. Course in Russian History (various editions).
1. Catherine II and the servile absolute system Catherine II of Russia (1762 – 1796) • Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst. Dornburg (real name of Catherine II) became an empress consort after the death of Queen Elizabeth II (1741 - 1762). • She did not descended from any previous Russian emperor of the Romanov Dynasty (although she descended from Rurikid). • Forced Peter III (January 1762) to sign an act of abdication on the 9 of July, 1962.
FOREIGN AFFAIRS Catherine II added to Russian territory more than 500, 000 km 2. Incorporated southern Ukraine (founding the cities of Odessa, future Dnepropetrovsk (Ekaterinoslav), Kherson). Annexed the Crimea in 1783. In 1780 Catherine II established a League of Armed Neutrality to defend neutral shipping from the British Royal Navy during the American Revolution (revolutions in Europe and the beginning of industrialization formed the historical background of the end of XVIII – XIX centuries).
«LEGISLOMANIA» Nakazy, literally “Instruction„ of Catherine the Great was a statement of legal principles, permeated with the ideas of the Enlightenment. The All-Russian Legislative Commission convened in 1767 for replacing the old Muscovite code of laws (XVII century) with a modern one. Catherine worked on the “Nakazy” for two years. Denis Diderot (who visited Russia in 1774) commented with negative: "There is no true sovereign except the nation; there can be no true legislator except the people“.
SERFDOM IN RUSSIA
Questions for the seminar 5. Look at maps and compare the territorial expansion of Russia under the reign of Peter I with the expansion of Russian empire during the times of Catherine II (outlets, new frontiers, territorial growth). 6. “Russia is an European state”, declared Catherine II. What did confirm Russian status as a „First-class European Power“ in 1768 -1774, 1772 -1795, 1779, 1787 -1792 (R. Barret, pp. 126 - 129) ?
2. Paul I, Alexandr I, Nicholas I: military service and autocratic state Paul I of Russia (1796 – 1801) • Changed the system of throne accession (Pauline Laws). Established the strict principle of primogeniture in the House of Romanov, «Russia was too long reigned by woman in XVIII century» ) • Reestablished central government • Introduced Prussian uniforms in army (which were deeply unpopular among oficers) • Turned foreign affairs from expansionist policy to diplomatic path • Tightened discipline in the army and among the nobility Died because of the conspiracy in 1801
2. Paul I, Alexandr I, Nicholas I: military service and autocratic state Alexander I of Russia (1801 – 1825) • Proposed conception of constitution monarchy, gave local constitutions to Poland, Finland. • Appointed the Private Committee to draw up a plan of future domestic reforms • Reformed Government. Introduced ministries to replace Petrine collegies • Tended to ease the serfdom. In 1803 created a new social category of «free agriculturalists» (вольные хлебопашцы).
2. Paul I, Alexandr I, Nicholas I: military service and autocratic state Patriotic War of 1812 The Napoleon Invasion of Russia Entering Moscow, the Napoleon Armée found the city abandoned and in fire. After 6 months of campaign lack of food, freezing and persistant attacks led to a loss of men and discipline in Napoleon army. In November 1812 only 27 000 soldiers remained from > 500 000. Napoleon's retreat by Vereshchagin
2. Paul I, Alexandr I, Nicholas I: military service and autocratic state Nicholas I of Russia (1825 – 1855) • Maintenance of autocratic power (created ‘’Third Section’’ to control public opinion and government) • Tuned the education system to state requirements (established An Imperial School of Jurisprudence) • Expanded the civil service (=> bureaucracy) • Protective support of private enterprise • First Russian railroad, Industrial development
Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality The official doctrine of Nicholas I reign Proposed by Minister of Education S. Uvarov Gained wide public recognition Russian antithesis to «Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité» • Orthodoxy —Protection of Russian Orthodox Church • Autocracy — unconditional loyalty to the Tsar in return to his protection for the society). • Nationality — ’’Narodnost’’. The Russian expression of Romantic nationalism.
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