- Slides: 16
History of Hawaii
Earliest Hawaiians Ø 300 -700 B. C. l Polynesians who traveled to Hawaii by canoe • Brought pigs, dogs, chickens, sweet potatoes, taro, coconut, sugarcane
Earliest Hawaiians (cont’d) Ø No written language l History, religion, and culture were all passed down through songs and chants
Social Structure Ø King l Each island had its own king Ø Chief Minister (spiritual advisor to the King) Ø Ali’i Chiefs of villages, put in place by the King Ø Kahuna l Ø Craftsman of canoes, medicine, spells, etc. Makaainana l l Commoners (the poor, the workers) Largest group of people
“Kapu” System (Laws) Ø System of religious beliefs that held Hawaiian society together Ø Taboos, or things that should not be done l Examples • Men and women could not eat together • Women could not eat bananas, coconuts • Fishing could only be done in certain seasons l Men could only eat certain kinds of fish • Shadow of a commoner could not fall on a Chief Ø Breaking these laws was punishable by death! l Human sacrifice, losing your eyes, limbs, etc.
“European Discovery” Ø January 1778 l l Captain James Cook “discovers” the islands while searching for route from Alaska to Asia First person to write about the Hawaiian’s riding waves on wooden boards (surfing!)
How did Capt. Cook die in Hawaii?
Kameha The Great Ø King Kameha I (1758 -1819) l l l Learned combat from the British (Capt. Cook) Conquered Big Island, Maui, Molokai, Lanai To conquer to Oahu, he built a huge fleet of canoes to carry his warriors • Landed at Waikiki, drove the Oahu’ans back to Nu’uanu Pali
Formation of Hawaiian Kingdom Ø After victory on Oahu, Kauai quickly agreed to peace Ø The 8 Hawaiian islands became one kingdom, with allegiance to Great Britain Ø American farmers begin moving to Hawaii in 1820 s Ø 5 more “Kamehamea’s”
Kameha IV (1834 -1863) Ø During his reign, many foreigners (Americans) began trying to get Hawaii annexed to the United States l l These were sugarcane plantation owners Wanted more trade with the USA ($$$$$$)
Kameha V (1830 -1872) l The Civil War cut off sugar to the Northern states from the South • Created huge demand for sugar in the USA (northern states) l l People (Americans and Hawaiians) created a Hawaiian Legislature, limiting power of the King Lots of racial trouble • Fights in the Legislature between native Hawaiians and white Americans • Whites refused to speak “Hawaiian” in the legislature. Hawaiians refused to speak English l Last King of Hawaii who wasn’t elected
Queen Lili’uokalani (1838 -1917) Ø Struggled with fights between white businessmen and native Hawaiian politicians Ø Queen wanted to give more power back to the monarchy Ø 1887 - White businessmen formed a militia (1500 men) and a new government (Committee of Safety) l The Queen could have had them arrested for treason!
Overthrow of Hawaii - 1898 Ø 1893 – l l Ø Lili’uokalani wanted peace, so she didn’t arrest them However, the Committee of Safety’s militia took over the government buildings The night before this, US marines landed on Oahu to “keep the peace” The Queen was forced to accept the annexation of Hawaii to the United States Native Hawaiians tried to revolt in 1895, which failed. l The Queen was arrested and sentenced to imprisonment in a bedroom in I’olani Palace