- Slides: 77
History of Floral Design
Why is it important? • To create arrangements with the feel of another time and place. • To harmonize your arrangements with the time period of the room or building. • HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF!!!
Floral Design in Ancient Civilizations • Egyptian • Greek • Roman • Byzantine
Egyptian Floral Design • Began in 2800 B. C. to 28 B. C. • We discovered floral design through artifacts and wall paintings • Used for decoration in – Temples – Banquet Tables – Wreaths for guests – Used in precessions – Given to honor someone
• • Egyptian Floral Design Orderly, alternating patters Simplistic, repetitious, and highly stylized Placed in spouted vases with no stem visible Set in regimented rows Around the edge of the vase (2 inches above the rim) Blossoms were flanked by leaves or buds on lower stems. No bunching or overlapping of material.
Egyptian Period 2800 -28 BC Containers • Egyptians favored wide-mouthed containers • Containers were often made from pottery, gold, slate, or polished alabaster • Farrence -- Type of glazed earthenware from Italy that was often used in containers
Egyptian Period: Design Characteristics • Common types of designs were chaplets, wreaths, garlands • Designs were typically orderly with alternating patterns of flowers • Dominant colors were red, yellow, and blue
Egyptian Period: Flowers several flowers were considered sacred, symbolizing Egyptian Gods and Goddesses • • • Acacia Gladiolas Jasmine Lily Lupine • • Morning Glory Poppy Rose Lotus**
Flowers used in Egyptian Design -Acacia -Madonna lilies -Narcissus -Roses -Jasmine -Water lilies -Poppies -Violets -Lotus blossom ( were considered sacred)
JASMINE LOTUS GLADIOLAS LILY MORNING GLORY
Egyptian Period: Foliage & Fruit • • • Ivy Laurel Oleander Figs Grapes • • • Olives Palm Papyrus Peaches Plums
Greek Floral Design • This Period Began 600 B. C. – 46 B. C. • The ancient Greeks were so dedicated to beauty that their art heritage has lived through the ages and influences today’s art. Herbs were frequently used with the flowers, and as garlands, and wreaths. They introduced the Horn of Plenty or Cornucopia. • •
Greek Floral Designs • Greek designs expressed grace and simplicity • Color was not important • the flowers, fragrance, and symbolism associated with each flower were foremost importance • Often symbolic of a god or hero
Greek Period 600 -146 BC Containers • Flower petals were often scattered on the ground during ceremonies • Design types often used were wreaths and garlands worn during special occasions. • Presented as awards to athletes, statesmen and soldiers. • The cornucopia was first introduced during this era. It was filled with fruits and vegetables and placed in an upright position rather than on its side as done today.
Greek Period: Flowers • Crocus • Daisy • Honeysuckle CROCUS HONEYSUCKLE DAISY
Flowers Used in Greek Designs Roses Hyacinths Honeysuckle Violets Lilies Tulips Larkspur Marigolds
Greek Period: Foliage & Fruit • • Herbs Ivy Laurel Berries • • Oak Olive Acorns Grapes
Roman Floral Design • 28 -B. C. -325 A. D. • The Romans continued with the customs of the Greeks. • Garlands, wreaths and crowns were more elaborate than those of the Greeks. Crowns and garlands were tapered. • Flowers were sometimes arranged in baskets and cornucopias. .
Roman Period 28 BC-325 AD • • • continued the customs of the Greeks Often used heavy & elaborate wreaths Used fragrant flowers with bright colors First use of natural bouquets arrangements and usage became more elaborate
Roman Floral Design • • “Dies Rosationis” - After a person dies the family would gather at a rose bedecked grave and lay more roses in remembrance of that person. “Sub Rosa” - Roman custom of hanging a wreath of white roses from the ceiling, and all things said beneath the wreath was to be kept a secret.
Flowers Used in Roman Design Poppy Roses Amaranths Crocus Ivy Narcissi Oleanders Myrtle Violets Honeysuckle Laurel Lily
Byzantine Floral Design • 320 -600 AD • Continued Roman designs • Elaborate containers had nearly pointed bases. • Used symmetrical tree -like compositions
Byzantine Floral Design • Changed construction of garlands to be narrow bands of flowers or fruit alternated with foliage • Formal conical designs with clusters of blossoms at regular intervals
Floral Designs in European Periods • Middle Ages • Renaissance • Baroque • French • English-Georgian • Victorian
Middle Ages Floral Design • (476 -1400 AD) • Flowers arranged in vases • Symmetrical groups in Chinese flasks show Chinese influence. • Little known about floral designs of this period • Information found in Persian art, rugs, and tapestries.
Renaissance Floral Design • Renaissance period saw a rebirth of many interests, particularly in the arts. • The Renaissance began in Italy but quickly spread to all of Europe. • The Renaissance style was greatly influenced by the Byzantine, Greek, and Roman
Renaissance Floral Design • Stems were covered creating a massed, symmetrically stiff arrangement. • In this era, the Christmas Wreath became popular • Fruits, blossoms and leaves were woven into garlands to decorate walls and vaulted ceilings • Petals were piled into baskets to strew on floors and streets or to float down from
Renaissance 1400 -1600 AD Period in Europe after Middle Ages • Paintings from this period often show vases of flowers because flowers had great symbolism – ex: The rose symbolized sacred or profane love – ex: A white lily symbolized chastity and fertility
Renaissance: Design Styles • Single white lily placed in a jug is typical • Flowers arranged in vases so that only blossoms were visible • Massed, symmetrically stiff, compact arrangements common • designs were large, tall, pyramidal, and symmetrically balanced • Bright colors and forms of flowers were used as focus
Renaissance: Flowers • • • Anemone Campanula Carnations Iris Poppy Rose • • • Lily of the Valley Marigold Narcissus Pansy Violets
ANEMONE CAMPANULA Lily of the Valley CARNATIONS
Flowers used in Renaissance Roses Ivy. Design Olive Branches Lily of the Valley Laurel Dianthus Lilies Violets Daisies Primroses
Renaissance: Foliage • • Boxwood Cones Fruit Ivy • • Laurel Myrtle Olive Vegetables
Baroque and Flemish Style Period • (1600 -1775 AD) • Classical Renaissance style gave way to the lavish Baroque style • Symmetrical oval shaped designs • Hogarthian curve or SCurve developed this period
Baroque Period 1600 -1775 AD Era following the Renaissance in Europe • Art is no longer just for the church or nobility, it is now accessible to the middle class. Paintings show arrangements in everyday settings • Many interiors were overdecorated and gaudy • Designs became more creative and expressive • asymmetrical curves in the shape of a crescent or an “s” were adopted later
Baroque Period: Containers • Massive and sturdy • Metal and stone urns • Chinese and Japanese vases, bowls, and flasks
Baroque and Flemish Style Period • Styles were evoked by the works of Michelangelo in Italy, but these were adopted by designers in Holland Belgium. • Large containers held flamboyant arrangements containing many different kinds of flowers.
Baroque Period: Flowers • • • Carnations Cyclamen Foxglove Iris Larkspur Lilies • • • Marigolds Roses Sunflowers Snowball Tulips
Iris Flowers Used in the Baroque and Flemish Style Era Marigold Lily Peony Cannas Hollyhock Roses
Baroque Period: Foliage & Accessories • • Leaves of flowers Coleus Olive Bold leaves • • • Fruits/vegetables Birds’ nests Shells Insects Nuts, berries
Floral Design in French Period All of these design periods fall under • • one Category : French Baroque French Rococo (18 th Century) Louis XVI (Late 18 th Century) Empire Period (1804 -1814)
French Period (17 th & 18 th century France) • Also known as the “Grand Era” • Associated with the courtly life • Emphasis was on classic design, refinement, and elegance • Designs were often fan shaped and massed
French Baroque • The topiary was introduced during this period. Symmetrical designs with no focal point. • Floral designs were informal, fragile, and delicate.
French Rococo (18 th Century) • Designs more formal than those of the Baroque period, predominantly arc and crescentshaped, delicate and airy.
Louis XVI (Late 18 th Century) • Delicate, cool colors before the French revolution, and the revival of the Classical Period following the French revolution.
Empire Period (1804 -1814) • Military symbolism was often used in arrangements, using emblems and figures associated with the emperor. Most of the designs were simple and triangular in shape.
French Period: Containers • Elegant and ornate • Goblets and vases made of glass, ceramic, or porcelain • Classic urns
French Period: Flowers & Foliage • • Acacia Aster Carnation Ferns Hyacinth Larkspur Lilacs • • • Lilies Marigolds Pansy Poppy Roses Tulips
English Georgian Period • (1714 -1760) • The 15 th and 16 th Century collective fortresses of England gave way to smaller houses, into which flowers were brought, more for their fragrance than their beauty. • Arrangements during the first half of this period consisted of flowers simply crammed into sturdy containers, with little or no concern for design. • Some of the containers of the period were made specifically to hold flowers, with holes or openings to maintain the stems at particular angles.
English-Georgian Period 1714 – 1760 AD • Named for English Kings George I, II, & III • Fragrance was very important in flower selection because it was thought to rid disease • English created the nosegay to safeguard from illness • Flowers became part of fashion in hair, around necks, and in décolletage • Arrangements were formal & symmetrical & often triangular • Often used bough pots
English-Georgian: Containers • • • Wedgwood Posy-holder vases Urns made of pewter, sliver, or ceramics Ceramic wall pockets Enclosed bricks
English-Georgian: Flowers Used the same as the Baroque period but also included: • Clover • Geraniums • Hibiscus • • Passion Flower Phlox Snowdrop Veronica
Victorian Era 1820 -1901 • The Victorian era named for Queen Victoria, marked a period of floral design, in which we often see elaborate and full designs. • Upper-class members of society showed their wealth with large, excessive, opulent and often overdone flower arrangements.
• Victorian Era This era was the first attempt to establish rules for floral arranging • Arrangements were created weekly by cultured ladies and their daughters in the home. • This was also the time when tussiemussie bouquets and nosegay bouquets made their mark in society. Proper women of Victorian society carried these bouquets at most social gatherings.
Victorian Era • Victorian style arrangements are typically round or oval in form. Flowers are typically kept to a lower height, • Strong color contrasts and flowers with brilliant hues were preferred • Lots of foliage is associated with Victorian style arrangements. • Fruit may be added to the arrangement also, mainly because the flowers are cut from the garden that are being used.
Victorian Era Language of Flowers • Victorians knew the language of flowers and carefully selected their arrangements or single flowers according to the message they wanted to convey to the recipient. • A gift of a bouquet of chrysanthemums meant love; a red carnation meant that feelings weren’t mutual and lavender meant luck or devotion
Victorian Era: Flowers • • • Bleeding Heart Camellias Carnations Dahlia Gardenia Hydrangea • • • Lilies Poppies Roses Sweet Pea Tulips Violets
Flowers Used in the Victorian Era Roses Tulips Carnations Lilies Daisies Peonies Fruit
Victorian Era: Foliage & Accessories • Ferns • Grasses • Dried Flowers • Figurines • Stuffed birds, butterflies • Victorian greeting cards
Oriental Influence in Floral Design • Began in India where Buddhist priests scattered branches and stem on altar or placed them in pottery urns. • Modified by the Chinese during the first century A. D. • Oriental influence placed emphasis on the individual form, texture, and color of plant material
Chinese vs. Japanese Style • Chinese style is less stylized • Japanese style is very formal and follows strict rules of construction • Japanese designs are characterized by minimum use of plant material and careful placement of branches and flowers. • Each placement and angle has meaning. Both use arrangements that depict how things are in nature – natural growth patters, groomed plants/pruned to perfection (bonsai)
American Styles of Floral Design • Early American • Colonial • Neoclassic • American Victorian
Early American (Colonial) Period • (1620 -1720) • The early colonists generally produced plants for food or for their medicinal properties. • What little time they had for arranging flowers was spent making simple arrangements to adorn their very modest homes. • Flowers were used more in the Central and Southern Colonial areas. • Most of the arrangements they made were copied from the English Georgian and French Empire periods. • Arrangements were made in simple mass forms using numerous colors.
• Colonial Williamsburg Floral (1740 -1780) Design • Colonial Williamsburg is renowned for it’s colorful arrangements in finger vase and flower bricks. • The English and European roots particularly in the Georgian and French designs became more symmetrical and sophisticated. • Fan and Triangular-shaped flower arrangements where lightly grouped at the top, sometimes 11/2 to three times the height of their containers.
Flowers Used in Colonial Williamsburg Design Lilies Anemones Roses Cockscomb Sunflowers Strawflower Violets Marigolds Daisies Ornamental grasses Snapdragons
American Period Floral Design • (1780 -1820) • The Neoclassic and Empire styles which had been evolving in Europe, especially the delicate French style, had a great influence on the styles used in late colonial America at this time. • In these types of arrangements, masses of mixed bouquets were used less often, and the charm of individual flowers was emphasized. Fewer flowers
American Victorian Period • (1800 -1920) • The Victorian period in England began to spill over to the newly-declared United States. • Ornate containers of many different kinds of materials were filled to overflowing, using cool colors and an abundance of white. • Arrangements tended to be made in rich purples, magentas, and dark blues. and the Tuzzy-Muzzy was popular, especially in the deep ´South´.
Modern Styles of Floral Design • Art Nouveau • Art Deco • Free Form Expression • Geometric Mass Design
Modern Period (Contemporary) Floral Design Art Nouveau • Based on curvilinear lines and often patterned after nature in the shape of plants/flowers • Containers were carving and asymmetrical
Art Nouveau Period: 1890 1910 • Style was based on curvilinear lines and often patterned after nature in the shape of plants or flowers • Containers were curving and asymmetrical
Modern Period (Contemporary) Floral Design Art Deco • Influenced by ancient Egyptian, Jazz age, and the industrial age. • Characterized by strong geometric lines and patterns • The style reemerged in the 1960’s • Corsages became popular in this time period.
Art Deco Period: 1920’s & 30’s • Blending of influences including ancient Egyptian, Jazz age, and industrial age • Characterized by strong geometric lines and patterns • The style reemerged in the 1960’s
Modern Period (Contemporary) Floral Design Free Form Expression • Arrangements became more expressive with feeling or movement and freedom • Textural differences between design materials were emphasized
Free Form Expression: 1950’s • Arrangements were more expressive with feeling of movement and freedom • Textural differences between design materials were emphasized
Modern Period (Contemporary) Floral Design Geometric Mass Design • Tight, geometric bouquets were common • Arrangements combined mass and line into stiff patterns • Compote containers were commonly used.
Geometric Mass Design: 1960’s & 70’s • Tight, geometric bouquets were common • Arrangements combined mass and line into stiff patterns • Compote containers were commonly used
Review • What are some types of flowers and foliage common to all periods of floral design? • Why is it important to study the history of floral design? • What are some reasons for changing design styles across time? • How did European traditions influence American design?