- Slides: 14
History of Computers Brian Callen
Early Computers • Hewlett – Packard was founded in 1939. • In 1940, the Complex Number Calculator (CNC) was invented, which provided the first example of remote access computing. • In 1941, the first Bombe computer was built. • Many Bombes were built and greatly improved the intelligence and processing powers of the Allies. • In 1944, the first Colossus computer was built to break the complex ciphers used by the Nazis. • In 1946, ENIAC was completed, which was 1, 000 times faster than other computers of the time. • Completed in 1948, IBM´s Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator created the moon position tables used in the 1969 Apollo 11 mission.
Early Computers (continued) • In 1951, the UNIVAC I was the first commercial computer to get public attention. • IBM shipped its first computer, the 701, in 1953. • In 1956, MIT built the first general-purpose, programmable computer built with transistors. • In 1960, DEC’s PDP-1 was the first computer with a display screen, no need for air conditioning, and only one operator. • In 1964, IBM released the first set of compatible computers that could work together. • The first commercially successful minicomputer was made by IBM in 1965.
More Advanced Computers • In 1968, the Apollo Guidance Computer was first used in the Apollo 7 mission. • In 1974, the Alto was the first computer with a built -in mouse. • In 1976, Steve Wozinak and Steve Jobs built the Apple-1 computed and founded Apple Computer, Inc. • In 1979, Atari released two computers with game capabilities • The Macintosh was released in 1984. It was the first successful computer with a mouse and graphic user interface.
Early Storage Methods • In 1952, magnetic tape was invented and allowed for inexpensive mass storage. • In 1956, IBM made the first magnetic disk storage device. • IBM’s storage disk device was released in 1961, and its capacity was 28 million characters. • In 1962, virtual memory was invented at the University of Manchester on an Atlas computer. • Virtual memory allowed a computer to switch between multiple programs.
Newer Storage Methods • IBM’s 8 -inch floppy diskette was released in 1971. • It quickly was accepted as a widespread storage medium. • The 5 ¼” flexible disk was released in 1978 by manufacturers. • The first hard disk was made in 1980 by Seagate Technology. • Hard disks were an essential part of the computer revolution. • Sony introduced the 3 ½” floppy disk in 1981, and Hewlett – Packard adopted it for general use in 1982.
Grace Hopper • She identified the first computer “bug” on September 9, 1945. • She found an actual bug, a moth, stuck in the relays of the Harvard Mark II. • However, the term came to represent a glitch or flaw in a program. • She was a Rear Admiral in the U. S. Navy and had successful careers in business and computers. • She helped build the Harvard Mark I and II computers. • She made the first compiler, A-0, and her work on programming languages led to the language COBOL.
Alan Turning • He posed important questions on judging human intelligence and programming. • His seminal paper, called “On Computable Numbers, ” was published in 1936. • He worked on the design of several computers during his career. • He was a mathematical genius, and his skills were extremely helpful to code-breaking efforts during World War II. • His use of logic in code-breaking was significant in his creation of the concept of a “universal machine. ” • He died at age 42.
Robots and Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence • During World War II, Norbert Wiener worked on anti -aircraft systems that could interpret radar images to anticipate the paths of enemy aircraft. • In 1948, Wiener published “Cybernetics, ” which was an important influence on later artificial intelligence. • In 1965, a team at Stanford created DENDRAL, which used “if-then” rules to identify the molecular structure of organic materials. • Texas Instruments introduced “Speak and Spell” in 1978, the first machine to duplicate human speech. • The Musical Instrument Digital Interface was introduced in 1983, which tells a synthesizer information about musical notes.
Robotics • In 1959, MIT demonstrated the first computerassisted manufacturing. • UNIMATE, the first industrial robot, began work in 1961. • The Stanford Arm, made in 1969, was the first successful electric-powered, computer-controlled robotic arm. • Shakey, developed by SRI International, was the first robot guided by artificial intelligence. • After 12 years of development, the Stanford Cart was completed in 1979, which crossed a chair-filled room without human intervention.