- Slides: 17
HISTORY INVESTIGATION UNIT Suspect Name: Polo, Marco Birthplace: Venice, Italy Birth date: Eyes: Brown Hair: Brown Height: 5’ 7” Weight: 140 lbs Occupation: Merchant Artist renderings, no photos of suspect exist Case Summary In 1298 Marco Polo of Venice was arrested and put in prison in Genoa. Venice and Genoa were involved in a civil war and Polo was charged with serving the Venetian army. He was imprisoned without a trial. Polo offered a unique defense. He argued that he owed no loyalty to Venice since he had been gone for over 20 years. Further, he claimed that those 20 years were spent in China. While in jail he told his story to his cellmate Rusticello who wrote the story in a book called Description of the World and later, The Travels of Marco Polo. Even in his time people doubted the stories in the book. They seemed far too fantastic to the people of Europe. It is important to note, however, that Europe had not yet seen the Renaissance and in many ways their technology was well behind that of China. What seemed like “magic” to them was simple science to the Chinese. Also, it is impossible to know exactly what parts were added by Rusticello to simply add excitement to the story. However, Polo swore on his deathbed that his story was true, adding “I have not even told you half of what I saw. ” While most historians have chosen to accept that Polo did visit China there are many who continue to argue that he did not. Your job is to examine the evidence and determine the answer. Did Marco Polo ever reach China or did he simply make up the story based on what he heard from other travelers? You decide.
Marco Polo’s Last Will and Testament
H w li " a F t B t u
Here in his will Polo indicates he received a “golden tablet” from the Kahn himself. Polo’s tablet has not been found by historians but others matching his description have been found in China. Shown below are a picture from his book showing the tablet and a modern recreation of what they may have looked like. "By the strength of the eternal Heaven, holy be the Khan's name. Let him that pays him not reverence be killed. "
Peter the Tartar Here Polo mentions the servant he claims to have been given while living in China. The Tartars were a group of people living in China at the time. "Also I release Peter the Tartar, my servant, from all bondage, as completely as I pray God to release mine own soul from all sin and guilt. And I also remit him whatever he may have gained by work at his own house; and over and above I bequeath him 100 lire of Venice denari. " Five years later the city of Venice gave to this same Peter all the rights of a Venetian citizen, so this person did in fact exist. But just calling Peter a "Tartar" does not necessarily mean that Marco Polo bought Peter in the Far East. Most slaves used in Venice, no matter where they were brought in from, were called Tartars. Presented here is a copy of Marco Polo’s will. A will is a document that spells out what a person will leave to their family and friends when they die. There is no doubt among historians that it is truly Polo’s will. There is great doubt, however, in some of the things he has listed to leave to his friends and family.
The Creature of Sumatra “In Sumatra they have wild elephants and plenty of unicorns, which are scarcely smaller than elephants. They have the hair of a buffalo and feet like an elephant’s. They have a single large, black horn in the middle of the forehead. They do not attack with their horn, but only with their tongue and their knees; for their tongues are furnished with long, sharp spines, so that when they want to do any harm to anyone they first crush him by kneeling upon him and then lacerate him with their tongues. "
These (Blemmyae, Sciopod, Wildman) are not found in Marco’s text – only as illustrations in early manuscripts. They are found in other European mythologies and described by other explorers.
CHAPTER XIII CONCERNING THE ISLAND OF ANGAMANAIN. Angamanain is a very large Island. The people are without a king and are Idolaters, and no better than wild beasts. And I assure you all the men of this Island of Angamanain have heads like dogs, and teeth and eyes likewise; in fact, in the face they are all just like big mastiff dogs! They have a quantity of spices; but they are a most cruel generation, and eat everybody that they can catch, if not of their own race. They live on flesh and rice and milk, and have fruits different from any of ours. Illustration from a version of the book printed in the 1450 s. Not from the original work.
Beijing Bridge Over this River there is a very fine stone bridge, so fine indeed, that it has very few equals. The fashion of it is this: it is 300 paces in length, and it must have a good eight paces of width, for ten mounted men can ride across it abreast. It has 24 arches and as many water-mills, and 'tis all of very fine marble, well built and firmly founded. Along the top of the bridge there is on either side a parapet of marble slabs and columns, made in this way. At the beginning of the bridge there is a marble column, and under it a marble lion, so that the column stands upon the lion's loins, whilst on the top of the column there is a second marble lion, both being of great size and beautifully executed sculpture. At the distance of a pace from this column there is another precisely the same, also with its two lions, and the space between them is closed with slabs of grey marble to prevent people from falling over into the water. And thus the columns run from space to space along either side of the bridge, so that altogether it is a beautiful object.
What things do you think of when you think of China? The Great Wall? Strange looking writing? How about chopsticks? China is a very unique land with lots of things that stand out. Marco Polo, oddly, didn’t mention many of them. Shown here are some of the more obvious things he left out. None of the things shown here are mentioned in Polo’s book.
Calligraphy Writing is considered an art in China. Calligraphers would spend years perfecting their technique and were greatly respected.
Food and Drink Chinese Tea Set Bamboo Chopsticks Tea Ceremony
The Annals of Yuan Shih The Mongols kept very detailed records of almost everything. This was a practice they copied from the Chinese. The names of all visitors to the Kahn’s court would have been recorded. Below you will find a copy of the record from 1266, the year Marco Polo claims he arrived in the capital city. Diaochan / 貂蝉 Da Qiao / 大喬 Cai Wenji / 蔡文姫 Chousen / 貂蝉 Dai Kyou / 大喬 Sai Bunki / 蔡文姫 Dong Zhuo / 董卓 Ding Feng / 丁奉 Cao / 曹操 Tou Taku / 董卓 Tei Hou / 丁奉 Sou / 曹操 Lü Bu / 呂布 Gan Ning / 甘寧 Cao Pi / 曹丕 Ryo Fu / 呂布 Kan Nei / 甘寧 Sou Hi / 曹丕 Meng Huo / 孟獲 Huang Gai / 黃蓋 Cao Ren / / 曹仁 Mou Kaku / 孟獲 Kou Gai / 黃蓋 Sou Jin / 曹仁 Yuan Shao / 袁紹 Ling Tong / 凌統 Dian Wei / 典韋 En Shou / 袁紹 Ryou Tou / 凌統 Ten I / 典韋 Zhang Jiao / 張角 Lü Meng / 呂蒙 Jim Xu / 賈詡 Chou Kaku / 張角 Ryo Mou / 呂蒙 Ka Ku / 賈詡 Zhu Rong / 祝融 Lu Xun / 陸遜 Pang De / 龐徳 Shuku Yuu / 祝融 Riku Son / 陸遜 Hou Toku / 龐徳 Zuo Ci / 左慈 Sun Ce / 孫策 Xiahou Dun / 夏侯惇 Sa Ji / 左慈 Son Saku / 孫策 Kakou Ton / 夏侯惇 Deng Ai / 鄧艾 Sun Jian / 孫堅 Xiahou Yuan / 夏侯淵 Tou Gai / 鄧艾 Son Ken / 孫堅 Kakou En / 夏侯淵 Guo Huai / 郭淮 Sun Quan / 孫權 Xu Huang / 徐晃 Kaku Wai / 郭淮 Sun Shang Xiang / 孫尚香 Jo Kou / 徐晃 Sima Shi / 司馬師 Son Shouka / 孫尚香 Xu Zhu / 許褚 Wu Shi / 司馬師 Taishi Ci / / 太史慈 Kyo Cho / 許褚 Sima Yi / 司馬懿 Taishi Ji / 太史慈 Zhang He / 張郃 Wu I / 司馬懿 Xiao Qiao / 小喬 Chou Kou / 張郃 Sima Zhao / 司馬昭 Syou Kyou / 小喬 Zhang Liao / 張遼 Wu Shou / 司馬昭 Zhou Tai / 周泰 Chou Ryou / 張遼 Wang Yuanji / 王元姫 Syuu Tai / 周泰 Zhen Ji / 甄姫 Ou Genki / 王元姫 Zhou Yu / / 周瑜 Sin Ki / 甄姫 Xiahou Ba / 夏侯霸 Syuu Yu / 周瑜 Zhuge Dan / 諸葛誕 Kakou Ha / 夏侯霸 Nobunaga / 信長 Jo Ka / 女媧 Zhong Hui / 鍾會 Nü Wa / 女媧 Toukichi / とーきち Guan Ping/ 關平 Kan Pei / 關平 Guan Yu / 關羽 Kan U / 關羽 Huang Zhong / 黄忠 Kou Chuu / 黄忠 Jiang Wei / 姜維 Kyou I / 姜維 Liu Bei / 劉備 Ryuu Bi / 劉備 Ma Chao / 馬超 Ba Chou / 馬超 Ma Dai / 馬岱 Ba Tai / 馬岱 Pang Tong / 龐統 Hou Tou / 龐統 Wei Yan / 魏延 Gi En / 魏延 Xing Cai / 星彩 Sei Sai / 星彩 Yue Ying / 月英 Getsu Ei / 月英 Zhang Fei / 張飛 Chou Hi / 張飛 Zhao Yun / 趙雲 Chou Un / 趙雲 Zhuge Liang / 諸葛亮 Shokatsu Ryou / 諸葛亮 Fu Xi / 伏羲 Si Se/ 伏羲 Fuku Gi / 伏羲
Wei Liang / 姜維 Meng Huong / 孟獲 Jan Kyou / 姜維 Kaku Yao / 孟獲 Hou Chi / 張飛 Shao Lin / 袁紹 Zhao Yun / 趙雲 En Shou / 袁紹 Chou Un / 趙雲 Jiao Wen / 張角 Liang Bo / 諸葛亮 Chou Kaku / 張角 Shokatsu Ryou / 諸葛亮 Zhu Rong / 祝融 Fu Xi / 伏羲 Shuku Yuu / 祝融 Fuku Gi / 伏羲 Zuo Ci / 左慈 Tokatsu Tan / 諸葛誕 Wu I / 司馬懿 Bei Liu / 劉備 Sima Zhao / 司馬昭 Kyuu Zi / 劉備 Wu Shou / 司馬昭 Pa Cao / 馬超 Wang Yuanji / 王元姫 Ba Chou / 馬超 Ou Genki / 王元姫 Yuan Ging/ 關平 Xiahou Ba / 夏侯霸 Khan Wei / 關平 Hakou Den / 夏侯霸 Guan Sung / 關羽 Zhong Hui / 鍾會 Kan U / 關羽 Sa Ji / 左慈 Guang Yong / 黄忠 Deng Ai / 鄧艾 Kou Chuu / 黄忠 Tou Gai / 鄧艾 Ma Dai / 馬岱 Guai Han / 郭淮 Ja Mai / 馬岱 Kaku Wai / 郭淮 Pang Long / 龐統 Shi Shang / 司馬師 Hou Zhou / 龐統 Wu Shi / 司馬師 Wei Ban / 魏延 Yuma Tang/ 司馬懿 Kong Ping/ 曹操 Chan Do / 貂蝉 Tao Ren / 曹丕 Ghoujen / 貂蝉 Jan Hu/ 曹丕 Tong Zhuo / 董卓 Jin Wun/ / 曹仁 Taku Ba / 董卓 Gi Hen / 魏延 Bu Fu/ 呂布 Xing Pai / 星彩 Ryu Fo / 呂布 Mei Mai / 星彩 Bou Kyou / 張遼 Yue Ying / 月英 Wi Khen / 甄姫 Tetsu Wei / 月英 Sanji Pao / 蔡文姫 Fang Zhei / 張飛 Pi Long / 曹丕 Wang Chung/ 蔡文姫 Hi Zho/ 曹丕 Ni Hao/ 曹操 Cao Ken / / 曹仁 Zhou Jin / 曹仁 Jou Win / 曹仁 Wian Wei / 典韋 Yuan Wei / 典韋 Mok Tril/ 典韋 Baken Ik / 典韋 Dang Koz/ 鄧艾 Zu Xin / 賈詡 Gait Lok/ 鄧艾 Bu Luang / 徐晃 Guai Han / 郭淮 Co Chou / 徐晃 Jak Bok/ 郭淮 Zu Zhu / 許褚 Tak Bel/ 大喬 Maku Tai/ 賈詡 Chi Kan/ 大喬 Kia Yuu / 甄姫 Zheng He/ 丁奉 Zhuge Dan / 諸葛誕 Da Cao/ 丁奉 Fon Kyou/ 女媧 Gou Kai / 黃蓋 Ting Long / 凌統 Zhou Tou / 凌統 Syuu Tai / 周泰 Song Yu / / 周瑜 Yu Tang / 周瑜 Jin Nobunaga / 信長 Banü Ja / 女媧 Meng Lu / 呂蒙 Ryo Mou / 呂蒙 Lu Xun / 陸遜 Ka Diao / 大喬 Kyai Kou / 大喬 Deng Zing / 丁奉 Wei Hou / 丁奉 Jan Bing / 甘寧 Khan Yei / 甘寧 Guang Hai / 黃蓋 Son Riku / 陸遜 Yun Zhe / 孫策 Son Baku / 孫策 Jun Jian / 孫堅 Son Ken / 孫堅 Sun Quan / 孫權 Sun Shang / 孫尚香 Son Shouka / 孫尚香 Qin Taishi / / 太史慈 Taishi Ji / 太史慈 Xiao Qiao / 小喬 Syou Kyou / 小喬 Zhou Tai / 周泰 Touki Chiba/とーきち Luk Pu/ 趙雲 Chun Li/ 趙雲 Long Bo / 諸葛亮 Hadu Ken/ 諸葛亮 Zan Gif/ 伏羲 Mi Bison/ 伏羲 Lu Beka/ 諸葛誕 Hung Pi/ 劉備 Lik Pu/ 劉備 Hu Lu/ 馬超 Jin Sho / 司馬昭 Wu Shou / 司馬昭 Por Ran/ 王元姫 Dok Kat/ 王元姫 Ban Zhou / 夏侯霸 Hakou Den / 夏侯霸 Kyo Cho / 許褚 Zhing Tze / 張郃 Kou / 張郃 Zhang Liao / 張遼 Zhou Ryou / 張遼 Ji Khen / 甄姫 Ki Yuan / 甄姫 Zhuge Dan / 諸葛誕 Don Ka / 女媧 Toukichi / とーきち Wenji Cao / 蔡文姫 Tai Bunji / 蔡文姫 Liao Pao / 曹操 Sou / 曹操 Tao Pi / 曹丕 Sou Hi / 曹丕 Cao Ren / / 曹仁 Zhou Jin / 曹仁 Wian Wei / 典韋 Ten I / 典韋 Xu Jin / 賈詡 Xu Huang / 徐晃 Jo Kou / 徐晃 Xu Zhu / 許褚 Ka Ku / 賈詡 Pang De / 龐徳 Hou Toku / 龐徳 Dun Wo / 夏侯惇 Zaho Ton / 夏侯惇 Yuan Ti / 夏侯淵 Kakou En / 夏侯淵 Zhong Hui / 鍾會
Rustichello da Pisa was the author of The Travels of Marco Polo. He was a fairly well known writer before writing the book. A few scanned pages of his works are provided for analysis. Table of Contents The Romance of King Arthur … 3 The Magician’s Daughter ………. 237 The Collected Works of Rustichello da Pisa Pixie and Gnome ………………. . . 423 Love in London …………………. . 675 Romantic Poems ………………… 804 Short Fiction Collection ………… 864 MDCX
The Romance of King Arthur rode over the hill and open before him were fields of the dark knight’s followers riding on their signature beasts. Their dark scales and enormous legs were unlike any other beast of the Earth. Each foot of the beast held six massive claws that could tear through even the largest of trees. Arthur gripped Excalibur just a bit harder. He looked into the eyes of one of the beasts and saw the empty red stare that he had come to know very well. Maybe this wasn’t the time to make his move. He thought of Guinevere and steeled his nerve. He could not leave her trapped in the castle. It was now or never. 43 Rustichello da Pisa
Interrogation Transcript of Mr. Marco Polo (Translated from original Italian) (BEGIN AUDIO RECORDING) MARCO POLO: (INAUDIBLE) because I really did go there! DETECTIVE STONE: So, you went to China. How then do you explain your name not appearing in the records? Surely an Italian would have stood out enough to be in them right? MARCO POLO: How do you know I’m not in the records? Do you speak Mongolian? You were looking for the name “Marco Polo” I assume? That’s not my Mongol name so why would it appear in the record that way? DETECTIVE STONE: So, what is your Mongol name? MARCO POLO: Look, why would I tell you? You’re the detective. Prove me guilty if you can but I’m not going to help you. DETECTIVE STONE: Fine. Why didn’t you write about The Great Wall or (INAUDIBLE) in your book? MARCO POLO: The great what? The only thing “great” in China was the Kahn. There walls around the cities sure but nothing called a “Great Wall” As for the other thing, I’ve never heard of it either. We drank goat’s milk, water and wine. Nothing like what you’re describing – are you trying to trick me? ! DETECTIVE STONE: Is there anything you left out of your book that you’d like to go on record as seeing? MARCO POLO: Did you even read the book? I said at the end I saw twice as much as I could ever describe in a book. Of course I saw more. DETECTIVE STONE: Anything specific? MARCO POLO: Not that I’d want to tell you. DETECTIVE STONE: I can see you aren’t going to cooperate – just one final question. Can you tell me what this says? MARCO POLO: (INAUDIBLE) so I don’t know – mostly looks like some kind of squiggle writing. DETECTIVE STONE: It’s Chinese – are you sure you don’t know what it says? MARCO POLO: I never bothered to learn Chinese so no; I don’t know what it says. I’m done with this nonsense. I have nothing more to say. (END AUDIO RECORDING)