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Histology- Lecture 4 Histology of Lymphatic System Al-Mustansiriya University Collage of Pharmacy Lecturer Dr Samah A. Jassam BSc MSc Ph. D MRSB
Lymphatic system It is part of the circulatory system and an important part of the immune system. It returns fluids that have leaked from the circulatory system back to the blood Lymphatic system consists of : 1 - lymph vessels 2 - lymph nodes 3 - lymphoid tissues 4 -circulating lymph
The lymphatic system has three main functions 1. Lymphatic system maintains the balance of fluid in the blood versus the tissues (fluid homeostasis) 2. It is part of the immune system and helping defend against foreign bodies such as bacteria 3. It facilitates absorption of fats and fat-soluble nutrients in the digestive system.
Lymphatic system organs 1 -The primary or central lymphoid organs, that generate lymphocytes from immature progenitor cells. such as the thymus and the bone marrow. 2 -Secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs, which include lymph nodes and the spleen, maintain mature naive lymphocytes and initiate an adaptive immune response.
The thymus is the site of maturation for T cells. The thymus increases in size from birth in response to postnatal antigen stimulation. • Most active in younger children; atrophies with age • Does not contain reticular fiber • Lack B cells, therefore no germinal cells present in the thymus The thymus
The spleen The largest lymphoid organ , it sites of lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response Functions of the spleen 1 - Cleanses the blood by removing old RBCs and platelets, as well as debris from the blood. 2 - Stores the breakdown products of RBCs site of erythrocyte production in the fetus spleen
Histology of the spleen The spleen is surrounded by a fibrous capsule contains both T cells, B cells, RBCs and macrophages Divided histologically into two regions: Red pulp – rich in lymphocytes and reticular fibers RBC disposal and recycling White pulp – rich in macrophages and reticular fibers Immune functions
Lymph nodes A lymph node is an organized collection of lymphoid tissue, through which the lymph passes on its way back to the blood. Lymph nodes are located at intervals along the lymphatic system. afferent lymph vessels bring in lymph to the lymph node, which percolates (filters) through the substance of the lymph node, and is then drained out by an efferent lymph vessel. There are between 500 -600 lymph nodes in the human body
What is the structure of the lymphatic nodes? 1 - Capsule sends dense extensions called trabeculae into lymph node , forming lobules 2 - The cortex is subdivided into OUTER CORTEX ( B cell dependant lymphoid follicles 3 - active (secondary) lymphoid follicles are pale (inactive are dark) and are in a region called GERMINAL CENTER.
Lymphatics (lymphatic vessels) The lymphatics or lymphatic vessels, also called lymph vessels, conduct the lymph between different parts of the body. Lymphatics are resemble veins in structure except, that their coats are thinner and that these have numerous valves. The larger collecting vessels are: A-The right lymphatic duct B-The thoracic duct (the left lymphatic duct).
Tonsils is a secondary lymphoid organ, and the simplest; named according to their location The location of tonsils follicles make them ideal because they are able to: • Destroy bacteria and prevent pathogens from slipping through the intestinal wall • Generate many “memory” lymphocytes for long -term immunity
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system. It is formed, when the interstitial fluid (the fluid which lies in the interstices of all body tissues) is collected through lymph capillaries, then transported through larger lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes, where it is cleaned by lymphocytes, before emptying ultimately into the right or the left subclavian vein, where it mixes back with the blood. Human lymph, obtained after a thoracic duct injury https: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki /Lymp
Formation of lymphocytes
Lymphoid cells (Lymphocytes) Arise in the red bone marrow, they protect the body against antigens Types of lymphocytes • T-lymphocytes (T cells): mature in the thymus, directly attack and destroy foreign cells • B-lymphocytes (B cells): mature in the bone marrow, produce plasma cells that manufacture antibodies • NK (natural killer ) cells (non-speficic immunity) = they mature in the bone marrow
T Cells and Cell Mediated Immunity T-cell targets virus or parasite infected cells, cancer cells, and cells of foreign grafts The main types of cells T-cell 1. Cytotoxic T (TC) cells: carry out cell mediated immunity, physically attack foreign cells 2. Helper T (TH) cells: activate B and TC cells 3. Suppressor T (TS) cells: moderate the immune response by inhibiting TC and B cells
Main differences between T-cell and B-cell
The Immune Response The immune response: is how your body recognises and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful T cells = cellular immunity; function to amplify the inflammatory response B cells = humoral immunity, antibodies formation
How the body responses to Ag (antigen) exposure? 1) Proliferation (rapid division) of lymphocytes 2) Production of effector molecules: B cells produce antibodies, Helper T cells produce cytokines Cytotoxic T cells produce cytotoxic granules 3) Macrophages and dendritic cells present antigens to T cells.
What are the main differences between cellular and humeral immune response?
Exercise What are the primary lymphoid organs? What are the secondary lymphoid organs? What is the main differences between T-cell and B-cell? How the body responses to the infection?