Higher education students on the MOVE Preconference MOVE

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Higher education students on the MOVE Preconference MOVE, 7 th March 2018 Belval/Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg

Higher education students on the MOVE Preconference MOVE, 7 th March 2018 Belval/Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg Emilia Kmiotek-Meier Julianna Kiss Zsuzsanna Dabasi Halasz Klaudia Horvath MOVE has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 649263

Overview I. III. IV. Student mobility in the Hungary and Luxembourg – short introduction

Overview I. III. IV. Student mobility in the Hungary and Luxembourg – short introduction Survey findings for MOVE countries Findings from Interviews Summary / policy recommendations

 I Background

I Background

Student mobility (in the EU) student mobility degree mobility credit mobility complete programme abroad

Student mobility (in the EU) student mobility degree mobility credit mobility complete programme abroad part of programme abroad • Recent ‘boom’ in migration/mobility studies • In the EU more research on credit mobility (ERASMUS) • some gaps -> personal perspective

Student mobility in Hungary Number of students (thousand person) Main destination countries for the

Student mobility in Hungary Number of students (thousand person) Main destination countries for the Hungarian student: Austria, Germany, United Kingdom (2013: 1655, 1611, 1213 student base of UNESCO data). Popular destination countries too Holland, France. Most of the students come from Europe and Asia. The majority of Europeans are from Germany, Romania and Slovakia. 23. 000 21. 000 19. 000 17. 000 15. 000 13. 000 11. 000 9. 000 7. 000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 incoming mobility outgoing mobility Total inbound and outboundinternationally mobile students (in Hungary) Forrás: own work base of UNESCO data 5

Student mobility in Luxembourg 2003 foundation of the University of Luxembourg degree mobility from

Student mobility in Luxembourg 2003 foundation of the University of Luxembourg degree mobility from LU • 75 % of all enrolled in tertiary education study abroad • Degree mobility from LU: mainly DE, FR, BE degree mobility into LU • + 50% of students enrolled have no LU nationality • mainly other EU-countries credit mobility from LU • an obligatory semester abroad for undergraduates 6

 II Survey findings 7

II Survey findings 7

Social network (I) 8

Social network (I) 8

Social network (II) 9

Social network (II) 9

Programs used in mobility 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Programs used in mobility 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Erasmus Germany (N=348) None Hungary (N=114) Luxembourg (N=439) Others Norway (N=155) Romania (N=278) Mundus, Tempus, Alfa, Edulink, etc. Spain (N=670) All (N=2004) 10

Reasons (I) What reasons do you consider most important to spend some time/move abroad?

Reasons (I) What reasons do you consider most important to spend some time/move abroad? % of yes 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% To learn/improve languages Germany (N=981) Hungary (N=334) In order to improve opportunities for personal/professional development Luxembourg (N=1221) Norway (N=436) Romania (N=816) Studies related reasons Spain (N=1987) All (N=5775) 11

Reasons (II) What reasons do you consider most important to spend some time/move abroad?

Reasons (II) What reasons do you consider most important to spend some time/move abroad? % of yes 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Feeling attracted to the culture /country Germany (N=981) Hungary (N=334) Previous knowledge of the language Luxembourg (N=1221) Norway (N=436) Romania (N=816) To improve working conditions Spain (N=1987) All (N=5775) 12

Financing (I) How did you finance your stay? Mean (1= non-existent; 5=very important) 5

Financing (I) How did you finance your stay? Mean (1= non-existent; 5=very important) 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 Family assistance European mobility programmes Private funds/savings Germany (N=337, 302, 342, 307) Hungary (N=113, 111, 114, 108) Luxembourg (N=394, 427, 431, 371) Romania (N=274, 253, 275, 240) Spain (N=655, 623, 666, 530) All (N=1915, 1864, 1971, 1674) National study grants Norway (N=142, 148, 143, 118) 13

Financing (II) How did you finance your stay? Mean (1= non-existent; 5=very important) 4

Financing (II) How did you finance your stay? Mean (1= non-existent; 5=very important) 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 Loan Working full time or part time Other grants and awards Germany (N=338, 312, 319, 307) Hungary (N=111, 110, 111) Luxembourg (N=398, 378, 384, 398) Romania (N=265, 243, 244, 242) Spain (N=637, 571, 548, 532) All (N=1898, 1734, 1737, 1731) Business programmes/funded by employer Norway (N=149, 120, 132, 141) 14

Obstacles (I) Main obstacles; % of yes 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Lack

Obstacles (I) Main obstacles; % of yes 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Lack of financial resources to move abroad Germany (N=616) Hungary (N=215) Lack of sufficient language skills Luxembourg (N=688) Norway (N=286) Romania (N=563) Lack of support or information Spain (N=1417) All (N=3785) 15

Obstacles (II) Main obstacles; % of yes 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Obstacles (II) Main obstacles; % of yes 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% I did not experience any barrier or difficulty Germany (N=616) Hungary (N=215) Psychological well-being Luxembourg (N=688) Norway (N=286) Obstacles or differences in recognition of qualifications Romania (N=563) Spain (N=1417) All (N=3785) 16

 III Interview findings 17

III Interview findings 17

Peers • Peers can influence decisions on mobility: impact of students with mobility background

Peers • Peers can influence decisions on mobility: impact of students with mobility background on potential students (but also wish to stay home) • Collective mobility: common decision as it is easier to travel and to stay abroad together • Communication with international students/co-nationals is more frequent, than with native students, (similar experiences, institutional organisation; life in the bubble) • Support function (substitute to family) • Source of information / network • Face-to-face and virtual peers 18

Process Towards Mobility • • Languages: to learn / to improve / is easy

Process Towards Mobility • • Languages: to learn / to improve / is easy English programmes (rather Hungary) Conscious/planned mobility: process Eagerness to go Obligation to go abroad / only way to study Social norm (country / class) – distinction Think twice to go – professional life afterward Academic aspects (seldom, rather degree) 19

Funding, Money, Paperwork, Bureaucracy • Paperwork at universities (lengthy process) • Strong bureaucracy in

Funding, Money, Paperwork, Bureaucracy • Paperwork at universities (lengthy process) • Strong bureaucracy in some countries • Lack of information; lack of contact with host/home institution • Getting lost (and found!) in the new system • • High costs / uneven funding Transfer of Erasmus scholarship (time) Credit recognition Money and autonomy (to spend money alone) 20

Youth parctices • Wish for international environment – „popular to go abroad” • Social

Youth parctices • Wish for international environment – „popular to go abroad” • Social media Life experience (against all odds) Personal development Freedom / autonomy (parents) Learn to adapt: to the new environment, other culture, quality of the accommodation, etc. • Transition • • 21

 IV Summary 22

IV Summary 22

 Policy recommendation (I) Structure v a well-developed institutional support structure: Student mobility within

Policy recommendation (I) Structure v a well-developed institutional support structure: Student mobility within Europe mostly short-term character (one or two semesters abroad) v enough and competent staff providing information v reasonable timeframe, both at sending and receiving institutions v preestablished / transparent procedures Inclusion / integration v increase numbers of scholarships v adjust mobility scholarship (Erasmus+) v in particular, for students coming from less wealthy countries v reconsider country groups in regard to the amount of scholarship provided 23

 Policy recommendation (II) Language skills v better integration of foreign students at the

Policy recommendation (II) Language skills v better integration of foreign students at the hosting institutions v more vivid exchange with native students, Do not forget about foreign degree students v different support than native regular students / or credit studnets Enable easy and swift recognition of foreign European (EHEA) diploma and credits (ECTS) in other European countries. -> are all obstacles really bad? (learn aspect) 24

Thank you for your attention! Contact: Emilia Kmiotek-Meier emilia. kmiotek@uni. lu University of Luxembourg

Thank you for your attention! Contact: Emilia Kmiotek-Meier emilia. [email protected] lu University of Luxembourg Faculté des Lettres, des Sciences Humaines, des Arts et des Sciences de l'Education Zsuzsanna Dabasi Halasz Julianna Kiss Klaudia Horváth Horvath. [email protected] hu University of Miskolc Faculty of Economics Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning Institute of World and Regional Economics http: //www. move-project. eu The research from the MOVE project leading to these results has received funding from Horizon 2020 under Grant Agreement N° 649263. 25