Higher education in the BRICS Balancing quality and

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Higher education in the BRICS: Balancing quality and inequality? Dr Michael Cosser BRICS Research

Higher education in the BRICS: Balancing quality and inequality? Dr Michael Cosser BRICS Research Centre Human Sciences Research Council South Africa Social science that makes a difference

Aim of paper and structure of presentation Aim: Impact of relationship between elitism &

Aim of paper and structure of presentation Aim: Impact of relationship between elitism & massification in HE systems of BRICS countries on inequality Structure: • Global university rankings • Profile of HE systems of BRICS • Implications for inequality; and • Pointers for BRICS promotion of common good Social science that makes a difference

BR THE (2016) QS (2015/2016) Institution WR 1 Peking University (C) 42 Tsinghua University

BR THE (2016) QS (2015/2016) Institution WR 1 Peking University (C) 42 Tsinghua University (C) 25 2 Tsinghua University (C) 47 Peking University (C) 41 3 University of Cape Town (S) 120 Fudan University (C) 51 4 Lomonosov Moscow State University (R) 161 Shanghai Jiao Tong University (C) 70 5 University of Sao Paulo (B) 201 -250 Zhejiang University (C) 6 Fudan University (C) 201 -250 7 Peter the Great St Petersburg Polytechnic University (R) 201 -250 Nanjing University (C) 130 8 University of Science & Technology of China (C) Indian Institute of Science 201 -250 Bangalore (I) 147 9 University of the Witwatersrand 201 -250 University of Cape Town (S) Indian Institute of Science Social science that makes a difference Bangalore (I) 10 251 -300 Institution University of Science & Technology of China (C) Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (I) WR 110 113 171 179

BR ARWU (2015) Institution CWUR (2016) WR Institution WR 1 Lomonosov Moscow State University

BR ARWU (2015) Institution CWUR (2016) WR Institution WR 1 Lomonosov Moscow State University (R) 2 Peking University (C) 101 -150 Tsinghua University (C) 3 Shanghai Jiao Tong University (C) 101 -150 Lomonosov Moscow State University (R) 77 4 Tsinghua University (C) 101 -150 University of Sao Paulo (B) 138 5 University of Sao Paulo (B) 101 -150 6 Zhejiang University (C) 7 Fudan University (C) Shanghai Jiao Tong University (C) University of the Witwatersrand 101 -150 (S) 151 -200 Zhejiang University (C) 8 Sun Yat-sen University (C) 151 -200 Fudan University (C) 9 University of Science & Technology of China (C) 151 -200 Social science that makes a difference 10 Beijing Normal University (C) 86 201 -300 Peking University (C) Moscow Institute of Physics & Technology (R) University of Science & 60 74 166 176 184 192 218 223

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Brazil • Public-private divide: – Federal vs private –

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Brazil • Public-private divide: – Federal vs private – High quality vs poor quality – Free public HE vs fee-paying private HE – High quality private secondary schooling vs low quality public secondary schooling – Wealthy white student enrolment tuition-free in federal universities vs poor black student enrolment in feepaying private universities Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Brazil • Public-private divide: – Five biggest universities (by

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Brazil • Public-private divide: – Five biggest universities (by student enrolment) private • Inequality – 48% of population white vs 68% of enrolments in top federal universities white – 50% of places in federal universities set aside for students from public high schools – Black students still minority in every degree programme Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Russian Federation • Gross enrolment ratio: – Russia: 76%

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Russian Federation • Gross enrolment ratio: – Russia: 76% in 2012 (Brazil = 45%; India = 24%; China = 27%; South Africa = 19%) • Percentage of population with HE: – In 2003, more than half of adult population – double t. OECD average Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Russian Federation • Education ministry decision in 2005 to

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Russian Federation • Education ministry decision in 2005 to group top 10 to 20 universities in category of “national universities” • Bulk of state funding allocated to these institutions to prepare students for Bachelor’s, Master’s and doctoral degrees • 2012 overhaul of HE system: audit of ± 600 public HE institutions revealed 476 weak in terms of quality of students, research productivity, and teaching capacity (top 40 elite institutions excluded from audit) Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Russian Federation • In 2014/15, 548 state and 402

Profile of BRICS HE systems: Russian Federation • In 2014/15, 548 state and 402 non-state HE institutions • Policy of institutional mergers and closing down of ineffective HEIs = steady decrease • Growth of elite higher education therefore co-occurring with decline in mass higher education • Impact of strategy on reducing inequality unsure; greater higher education opportunities afforded to traditional elite of Russian (and indeed former Soviet) society maintain status quo Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: India • HE system in 2011/12 = 259 HE

Profile of BRICS HE systems: India • HE system in 2011/12 = 259 HE institutions – predominantly 44 Central Universities, 130 Deemed Universities, 16 Indian Institutes of Technology, 30 National Institutes of Technology, and 13 Indian Institutes of Management • Opinion on elite HE mixed: – Altbach (2013) argues for differentiation: elite sector at the top, mass-based and less selective institutions in the middle, and vocationally oriented postsecondary schools at the bottom Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: India • Opinion on elite HE mixed: – Schwarzman,

Profile of BRICS HE systems: India • Opinion on elite HE mixed: – Schwarzman, Pinheiro & Pillay (2015) argue against differentiation: current policy direction encourages growth of national elite institutions (e. g. , replication of Indian Institutes of Management and Indian Institutes of Technology) – But such institutions can only ever serve very small percentage of Indian students Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS higher education (HE) systems: India – Solution: improve quality of the

Profile of BRICS higher education (HE) systems: India – Solution: improve quality of the entire HE system – without which “higher education will not be effective in serving any of the goals set for it within the new knowledge economy” (Schwarzman, Pinheiro & Pillay, 2015: 328) • India’s elite universities receive four to five times the funding per student relative to mass-based institutions • India spends only 0. 37% of GDP on HE – compared to US figure of 1. 41% of GDP and UK’s 1. 07% of GDP • Indian HE faced with serious policy direction challenge Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: China • In 1998, China decision to build cadre

Profile of BRICS HE systems: China • In 1998, China decision to build cadre of world-class HE institutions (‘China’s Ivy League’): 9 universities each allocated between 1 bn and 1. 5 bn yuan ($162 million-$243 million) for infrastructure development, laboratories, & equipment in 1999 • Seven of the 9 amongst highest ranked institutions within BRICS in major ranking systems of the world in 2015/16 • But Chinese university representation in top 200 universities of the world? Peking and Tsinghua, while among top 50, outside top 40 • Biggest fish in BRICS pond relatively small fish in world pond Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: China • Nine elites juxtaposed with remaining 2, 475

Profile of BRICS HE systems: China • Nine elites juxtaposed with remaining 2, 475 HE institutions on Chinese mainland • Key question: – What are the relative benefits for the country of the valorisation of nine institutions and their subsequent elevation to world-class status (three of them are among the top 100 universities in the world) against the relative neglect of two-and-ahalf thousand institutions? Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: South Africa • In face of Council on Higher

Profile of BRICS HE systems: South Africa • In face of Council on Higher Education advice in 2000 to create differentiated university system, South Africa instead chose model designed to reverse inequalities perpetuated by apartheid education system • Restructuring process (characterised by mergers and acquisitions to form “comprehensive universities”) nevertheless saw some elite former white universities (Witwatersrand, Cape Town, Rhodes, Pretoria, Stellenbosch) and some non-elite former black universities (Fort Hare, Venda, Zululand) left intact • 16 years later, state continues to pursue non-differentiated approach, especially towards funding of HE institutions Social science that makes a difference

Profile of BRICS HE systems: South Africa • Non-differentiated approach not had desired (inequalityreducing)

Profile of BRICS HE systems: South Africa • Non-differentiated approach not had desired (inequalityreducing) effect • Equality in terms of access improved: black African students outnumber white students by 54 percentage points • But enrolments not representative of black Africans in general population: black Africans = 80% of the population, whites 8 per cent • In terms of cohort completion rates, white completion rate (2006 cohort) = 1. 6 times (or 60%) higher than black African completion rate Social science that makes a difference

Implications for inequality 1. How the BRICS balance elite and mass-based HE betrays their

Implications for inequality 1. How the BRICS balance elite and mass-based HE betrays their commitment to reducing inequality – 4 of the 5 appear to favour elite over mass-based HE institutions, at least in terms of funding priorities – Mass-based HE in Brazil, Russia, India and China relatively weak – certainly much weaker than second-tier higher education provision in developed world – Reasons for elitist approach? Social science that makes a difference

Implications for inequality • Key question: – Have these four BRICS countries focused their

Implications for inequality • Key question: – Have these four BRICS countries focused their attention on a select group of institutions in the hope that greater competitiveness on the world stage will have positive spin-off effects both for their higher education systems as a whole, leading to trickle-down effects that will foster greater competitiveness amongst second-tier institutions, as well as for the growth of their knowledge economies? • South Africa’s second-tier HE system remains weak largely because of differentiation between white and ‘non-white’ HE institutions under apartheid Social science that makes a difference

Implications for inequality 2. Funding a critical differentiator in determining whether HE systems advance

Implications for inequality 2. Funding a critical differentiator in determining whether HE systems advance or reduce inequality – In low- and middle-income countries (Brazil, India, South Africa) – countries already characterized by high levels of inequality – hard policy choices needed about which education sectors to fund, let alone about which institutions within higher education to favour – Strong higher education systems “absorb significant state resources and rest on a viable tax system” (Marginson, 2016: 20) – In Brazil and South Africa, more people recipients of social grants than pay tax: severely constrains state spending on all education, let alone higher education Social science that makes a difference

Balancing competing national interests in higher education • Ideal: “diverse range of universities each

Balancing competing national interests in higher education • Ideal: “diverse range of universities each with specialist world-class expertise … [enabling] countries to mobilise and leverage the potential of the whole system for the benefit of society at large (Hazelkorn, 2009: n. p. ) • Balance between investment in first-tier universities and significant support for second-tier, mass-based institutions required to maintain quality of research and improve quality of teaching across national HE systems Social science that makes a difference

Balancing competing national interests in higher education … the common public good is maximised

Balancing competing national interests in higher education … the common public good is maximised when value differentials between institutions and fields of study are moderate, the ‘floor’ of educational quality in mass institutions is high, and the material and cultural conditions governing access and completion are equalised as far as practicable, consistent with human freedoms (Marginson, 2016: 20; emphasis added) Social science that makes a difference

Conclusions 1. Inequalities in HE largely mirror those in broader society. But HE should

Conclusions 1. Inequalities in HE largely mirror those in broader society. But HE should aim at least not to perpetuate them. 2. HE “does not trigger egalitarian societies on its own, though it can facilitate them. We should set aside the old hubris that higher education is the principal maker of society, whether we live in innovation societies, or knowledge economies, or somewhere else. In aggregate, what happens with incomes, wealth, labour markets, taxation, government spending, social programmes, and urban development, are overwhelmingly more important. This suggests that as researchers into higher education we take a closer interest in the larger intellectual and policy conversation on inequality, especially by focusing on the junctions between higher education and other social sectors (Marginson, 2015: 20) Social science that makes a difference