High Intensity Frontier Physics with ESS Tord Ekelf

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High Intensity Frontier Physics with ESS Tord Ekelf Uppsala University 2020 -10 -21 Photo

High Intensity Frontier Physics with ESS Tord Ekelf Uppsala University 2020 -10 -21 Photo 8 October 2020 TIARA Meeting 1

The European Spallation Source neutrino Super Beam INFRADEV-1 Design Study Midterm report issued spring

The European Spallation Source neutrino Super Beam INFRADEV-1 Design Study Midterm report issued spring 2020: “Report on the results obtained during the second year at midterm of the ESSnu. SB Feasibility Study for Employing the Uniquely Powerful ESS Linear Accelerator to generate an Intense Neutrino Beam for Leptonic CP Violation Discovery and Measurements” Available at https: //essnusb. eu/Doc. DB/public/Show. Document? docid=706 A 6. 5 minutes ESSnu. SB video film available here You. Tube address https: //youtu. be/Pwz. Nz. LQh-Dw 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 2

The ESS linac status First Spoke Cavity Cryomodule arrived from LPNO to FREIA for

The ESS linac status First Spoke Cavity Cryomodule arrived from LPNO to FREIA for tests last Monday ESS 8 October 2020 09/10/2020 MEBT RFQ Spoke CM proto in FREIA Fists spoke CM 18 Oct 2020 DTL TIARA Meeting 3

The ESS linac upgrade to 10 MW Pulse scheme Modulator capacitor upgrade 2020 -10

The ESS linac upgrade to 10 MW Pulse scheme Modulator capacitor upgrade 2020 -10 -21 Result of chopping Intra Beam Stripping TIARA Meeting 4

Accumulator optimization injection RF extraction collimation FODO cells Accumulator lay-out Beam injection painting Two-stage

Accumulator optimization injection RF extraction collimation FODO cells Accumulator lay-out Beam injection painting Two-stage collimation system 2020 -10 -21 Optimizing stripping foil temperature Beam extraction TIARA Meeting 5

The target station studies Ti Spheres Packed Bed Target Helium cooling 2020 -10 -21

The target station studies Ti Spheres Packed Bed Target Helium cooling 2020 -10 -21 Segmented beam dump Focusing horn optimization Horn current power supply optimization Muon flux at end of decay tunnel TIARA Meeting 6

The near and far detectors Two far detector locations A muon ring in the

The near and far detectors Two far detector locations A muon ring in the far detector 2020 -10 -21 The far detector location at Zinkgruvan The components and lay-out of the near detector Reconstructed ν energy minus true ν energy for νe (left) and νμ (right) Angular distribution for scattering of νμ on electrons (left) and νe on H 2 O (right) TIARA Meeting 7

ESSnu. SB physics performance Garpenberg Zinkgruvan CPV discovery potential Upper Normal Ordering, lower Inverted

ESSnu. SB physics performance Garpenberg Zinkgruvan CPV discovery potential Upper Normal Ordering, lower Inverted Ordering Dashed beam data only, full line with atmospheric data 2020 -10 -21 Garpenberg Zinkgruvan CP angular resolution Upper: Dashed beam data only, full line with atmospheric data, running with 5 years ν and 5 years anti-ν Lower: varying the ratio of ν versus anti-ν running time TIARA Meeting 8

Prospects for Intensity Frontier Particle Physics with Compressed Pulses from the ESS Linac Open

Prospects for Intensity Frontier Particle Physics with Compressed Pulses from the ESS Linac Open workshop at Uppsala University 2 -3 March 2020 Program and registration at: https: //indico. cern. ch/event/849674/ 2. 7 x 1023 p. o. t. /year Short neutron pulses ESS 5 MW proton accelerator Accumulator Ring Protons dump nm or nm p decay m+ or m- 4 x 1020 muons/year of average energy ~0. 5 Ge. V at the level of the beam dump Front end Cooling m Test Facility m Decay channel or ring Recyling Linerar Acc. Long Baseline Detector nm + ne ne + nm Storage ring ESSnu. SB Short Baseline Detector nu. STORM Long Baseline Detector Rapid Collider Cycling ring Synchrotron TIARA Meeting → ← + - Neutrino Factory Muon Collider 2020 -10 -21 μ μ 9

The participants in the Uppsala Workshop 2 -3 March 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting

The participants in the Uppsala Workshop 2 -3 March 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University 10

Short spallation neutron pulses ESS will have an order of magnitude higher spallation neutron

Short spallation neutron pulses ESS will have an order of magnitude higher spallation neutron flux per pulse and much longer pulses (3 ms) than other sources have (typically 1 μs) Fast extraction from the ESSnu. SB accumulator produces 1. 3 μs neutron pulses pules Equipping the accumulator with slow extraction to produce 50 μs pulses, which is the approximate moderation time of the neutrons, a much higher instantaneous neutron flux and better pulse timing could be achieved, adding further to the ESS’ already leading features as neuron source for material sciences. 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 11

Pions at the level of the ESSnu. SB beam dump ESS linac 2. 7

Pions at the level of the ESSnu. SB beam dump ESS linac 2. 7 x 1023 p. o. t/year Pions at the level of the ESSnu. SB beam dump, 56% per proton, i. e. 1. 5 x 1023 π/year nu. STORM π->μ+νμ π 2020 -10 -21 νe and νμ ; μ->e+νe+νμ TIARA Meeting νe cross-sections Sterile neutrinos 12

Neutrino Factory Then cooling, acceleration and storage in a μ decy ring Accumulation and

Neutrino Factory Then cooling, acceleration and storage in a μ decy ring Accumulation and bunching 2020 -10 -21 Phase rotation TIARA Meeting 13

A Muon Collider Higgs Factory at ESS 62. 5 Ge. V Higgs Factory Muon

A Muon Collider Higgs Factory at ESS 62. 5 Ge. V Higgs Factory Muon cooling in 3 steps: 1. Linear transverse cooling 2. 6 D cooling 3. Parametric Resonance Cooling Then acceleration to 62. 5 Ge. V and collisions 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 14

Coherent ν-N scattering Detector mass 10 -20 kg ~10 ke. V detector threshold Huge

Coherent ν-N scattering Detector mass 10 -20 kg ~10 ke. V detector threshold Huge cross-sections 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 15

Kaon- decay-at-rest KDAR K-pipe 236 k. E νμ monoenergetic beam from the ESSnu. SB

Kaon- decay-at-rest KDAR K-pipe 236 k. E νμ monoenergetic beam from the ESSnu. SB beam dump that can be used to search for νμ oscillations to sterile ν 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 16

The interested community active in the ESSnu. SB design study and the other HIFI

The interested community active in the ESSnu. SB design study and the other HIFI projects is composed of more than 70 physicists affiliated to the following 24 institutions: Centre National de la Recherche Scientific at IPHC (Strasbourg) and at IJCLab (Orsay), France Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey Demokritos Center, Athens, Greece Donostia International Physics Center, San Sebastian, Spain European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva, Switzerland European Spallation Source, Lund, Sweden Gran Sasso Science Institute, L’Aquila, Italy Imperial College, London, UK Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) at Bari, at Milano and at Padova, Italy Lund University, Sweden Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA University of Michigan, USA Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain University of Durham, UK University of Hamburg, Germany University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland University of Oslo, Norway University of Texas, Arlington, USA University of Thessaloniki, Greece Uppsala University, Sweden This enlarged collaboration intends to apply to Horizon Europe for the financing of a HIFI at ESS design study 2022 -2025, which shall result in a Technical Design Report for ESSnu. SB and a conceptual Design Report for the other projects by 2025. 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University 17

Horizon Europe The rules for the new funding schemes of Horizon Europe, which will

Horizon Europe The rules for the new funding schemes of Horizon Europe, which will be in operation during the years 2021 -2027, are still being discussed by representatives of the EU member Countries in a committee that will eventually be the committee that will evaluate and decide on the Research Infrastructure fund applications to Horizon Europe. This committee , currently called the Shadow Committee, has come quite far in forming its proposal, which will be handed to the EU DG for Research towards the end of 2020. The call for applications will be published soon after with a dead-line for application later in the spring 2021. The decisions will made towards the end of 2021. There are three following funding schemes to which it may be possible for us to apply for funding (text quoted from the Shadow committee draft): 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 18

Destination 1. 1 RI concept development (similar to the Horizon 2020 INFRADEV-1 Design Studies):

Destination 1. 1 RI concept development (similar to the Horizon 2020 INFRADEV-1 Design Studies): Scope: development of new concepts for the next generation of RI of European interest, single/multi sited, distributed or virtual, that none or few countries might individually be able to afford. All fields of research can be considered. Main features: RIs of European interest: able to attract users from MS/ACs other than the country where the infrastructure is located. RI concept development addresses technical and conceptual feasibility of new or upgraded fully fledged user facilities. Major upgrades of existing infrastructures: if the end result is significantly transformative/equivalent to a new infrastructure concept. Type of action: RIA 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 19

Destination 1. 2 Preparatory phase of new Ris (similar to the Horizon INFRADEV-2 Preparatory

Destination 1. 2 Preparatory phase of new Ris (similar to the Horizon INFRADEV-2 Preparatory Phase) Scope: preparatory phase of new ESFRI Research Infrastructure Projects (2021 ESFRI Roadmap update) Main features: RI preparatory phases address all key questions concerning legal, financial and technical issues leading to the establishment of a new RI and ensuring commitment of MSs/ACs to their long-term operation and use in all fields of science. Type of actions: CSA/RIA 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 20

Destination 4. 1 R&D for the next generation of scientific instruments, tools and methods

Destination 4. 1 R&D for the next generation of scientific instruments, tools and methods (without direct correspondence in Horizon 2020) Scope: deliver innovative scientific instrumentation, tools and methods to advance the state-of-art of European RIs and show transformative potential in RIs operation, thus leading RIs to support new areas of research and/or a wider community of users Main features: R&I activities, including technology validation and prototyping training of RI staff for the operation and use of new solutions. At least 3 world-class RIs: ESFRI RIs, ERICs and/or other world -class Research Infrastructures of European interest. Involvement of a wide set of RIs and other technological partners, including industry and SMEs, is expected. Type of action: RIA 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 21

ERC Synergy Grants Who can apply? A group of two to maximum four Principal

ERC Synergy Grants Who can apply? A group of two to maximum four Principal Investigators (PIs) – of which one will be designated as the corresponding PI (c. PI) – working together and bringing different skills and resources to tackle ambitious research problems. No specific eligibility criteria regarding the academic training are foreseen for ERC Synergy Grants. PIs must present an early achievement track-record or a ten-year track-record, whichever is most appropriate. Proposals will be evaluated on the sole criterion of scientific excellence which, in the case the ERC Synergy Grants, takes on the additional meaning of outstanding intrinsic synergetic effect. Criteria Applications can be made in any field of research. The ERC's grants operate on a 'bottom-up' basis without predetermined priorities. In the case of the ERC Synergy Grants, applications must demonstrate that the proposed research cannot be carried out by a single PI working alone. How much? Synergy Grants can be up to a maximum of € 10 million for a period of 6 years (pro rata for projects of shorter duration). An ERC grant can cover up to 100% of the total eligible direct costs of the research plus a contribution of 25% of the total eligible costs towards indirect costs. Evaluation process Proposals are evaluated by selected international peer reviewers who evaluate proposals on the basis of excellence as the sole criterion. It will be applied to the evaluation of both the research project and the Principal Investigators, taking into account the synergetic aspects of the proposed research. TIARA Meeting Next call will be in Sept 2021, the dead-line in Nov 2021 and spending could start around autumn 2020 -10 -21 2022 22

What next? When the Horizon Europe Research Infrastructure development calls are known later this

What next? When the Horizon Europe Research Infrastructure development calls are known later this fall we will analyze the final conditions for the request that we will make for funding of our ESSnu. SB and HIFI Design Study Project. The current draft Research Plan for the High Intensity Frontier Initiative shall be edited such that it will fit the precise requirements of the calls. Project contact persons for the reserach plan for the ESSnu. SB and HIFI fund request : For ESSnu. SB: Marcos Dracos For Short high intensity neutron pulses: Andrew Jackson For nu. STORM and Neutrino Factory: Jaroslaw Pasternak For Muon Collider: Carlo Rubbi For Coherent Scattering and Decay at rest: Janet Conrad For the editoring: Tord Ekelof 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting Tord Ekelöf Uppsala University 23

Conlusions - The ESSnu. SB Design Study is well advanced - it has produced

Conlusions - The ESSnu. SB Design Study is well advanced - it has produced a midterm report and will deliver a ESSnu. SB Conceptual Design Report by March 2022. - An initiative has been taken to enlarge the scope of the Design Study to include several High Intensity Frontier projects based on the ESS linac and the ESSnu. SB accumulator like nu. STORM, Neutrino Factory, Muon Collider, Coherent Neutrino Scattering, Decay at Rest and High Intensity Short Spallation Neutron pulses. - The enlarged collaboration intends to apply to Horizon Europe for financing for a study of such an extended design study 2022 -2025, resulting in a Technical Design Report for ESSnu. SB and a conceptual Design Report for the other projects by 2025. - The Horizon Europe calls are not yet published and it is therefore, at this moment, not clear which the rules will be for the future EU grant applications. 2020 -10 -21 TIARA Meeting 24