- Slides: 15
Hebrews and Judaism Chapter 7
The Early Hebrews • Abraham – told by God to leave his home in Mesopotamia. • He was promised new land that his descendants would become a mighty nation. • He and his people settled in Canaan • They eventually became known as Israelites
• The Israelites moved to Egypt – we aren't sure why, maybe famine. • They were happy and successful and their population began to grow. • This made the Egyptian Pharaoh nervous. • To prevent the Israelites from becoming to powerful he forced them to be slaves.
The Exodus • 1200 BC • Moses appeared as a leader among the Israelites. • He was told by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt • The pharaoh did not want to let them leave. • The God of the Israelites sent terrible plagues upon Egypt.
10 Plagues • • • Water turned to blood Frogs Lice Flies Livestock diseased Boils Thunder and hail Locusts Darkness Death of the firstborn
• After the pharaoh’s first born son died he allowed the Israelites to leave Egypt. • He soon changed his mind though and chased the Israelites. • They escaped when God parted the Red Sea
` • After escaping Egypt the Israelites wandered in the wilderness for 40 years. • During this time Moses went to the top of Mt. Sinai and received the 10 Commandments from God.
• Eventually the Israelites made it back to Canaan or what they called the Promised Land • They had to fight the people that lived there to get it back. • There were 12 tribes of Israel and they all had their own leader • Invaders forced them to unite under one king to survive. The Philistines were the greatest enemy of the Israelites
Kings of the Israelites • Saul – the first King of Israel • He had some military success but was never well liked by the people. • David – second King of Israel • Killed Goliath • Well liked • Good military leader • Greatest hero of the Israelites and Jews
Fall of The Kingdom • After Solomon’s death the Kingdom of Israel began to fall apart. • Israel split into 2 separate kingdoms – Israel to the north – Judah to the south – these people became known as Jews • Both kingdoms were eventually taken over by outsiders.
Diaspora • The Chaldeans captured Jerusalem, destroyed Solomon’s Temple and sent the Jews to Babylon to be slaves. • This is called the Babylonian Captivity • Diaspora – the scattering of Jews outside of Israel and Judah • The Jews eventually returned home and rebuilt the Temple.
Roman Invasion • 63 BC the Romans invaded Israel and Judah • The Romans had no respect for Jewish culture or religion, and the Jews rebelled against them several times. • Zealots – thought the Jews should only answer to God, wanted freedom from Rome
• The rebellions against Rome were unsuccessful • Romans destroyed the Second Temple in Jerusalem • 130 AD – Rome banned Jews from Jerusalem • Many Jews moved to new places
Religion • Jews do not believe Jesus was the Son of God • First monotheistic religion • Believed in education • Follow the laws of their religion – Mosaic Laws • Torah – most sacred text • Synagogue – Jewish house of worship
Jewish Holidays • Hanukkah – celebration of a victory by the Macabees • Passover – celebration of the Exodus • High Holy Days – Rosh Hashanah – celebration of the New Year on the Jewish calendar – Yom Kippur – holiest day of the year – Jews ask God to forgive them of their sins