- Slides: 15
HEALTH, WELLNESS, ILLNESS & DISABILITY
HEALTH & WELLNESS o o o o What is your definition of health? Past definitions of health focused on “not being sick” Modern definitions of health emphasize holism. WHO (World Health Organization) states that “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. How do you define “wellness”? Wellness is achieving the best health possible in all 5 dimensions of one’s life Few people ever achieve total wellness Wellness is an ongoing process throughout life
HEALTH o o o What is optimal health? As a health care worker, you care for and support the client’s health potential. This means proving “holistic” care. Holistic care is caring for and supporting all aspects of health, including: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. o Physical Emotional Social Spiritual Intellectual In health care, we have to care for all aspects, not just the physical illness b/c each aspect depends on the other.
DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH PHYSICAL HEALTH o o o Body is strong, fit and disease free Influenced by genetics and lifestyle Contributing factors include: n n n o Nutritious diet Exercise Being smoke free Limiting alcohol Proper rest As a health care worker you can promote your client’s physical health by: n n n Maintaining a safe, clean and comfortable environment Preparing nutritious meals Assisting with physical activity
DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH EMOTIONAL HEALTH o o o Not just the absence of negative feelings Ability to function well and adapt appropriately to circumstances. Emotionally healthy people feel good about themselves, have self esteem, self control, and self awareness. Emotionally unhealthy people are often insecure. Life events can affect emotional health As a health care worker you must: n n Avoid judging Learn to read client’s emotions
DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH SOCIAL HEALTH o o o o Achieved through stable and satisfying relationships. We all have the need for: n Companionship/belonging n Comfort, support, encouragement n Reassurance of one’s self worth n Help, guidance, advice n A social support system Socially healthy people treat other with respect, warmth, openness and are trusting. Socially unhealthy people show little regard for others. Older adults and immigrants may feel socially isolated and lonely As a health care worker you are part of your client’s support system. You provide practical and emotional support
DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH SPIRITUAL HEALTH o Achieved through the belief in a higher purpose. o May or may not include religion o Spiritually healthy means having a clear understanding of one’s own morals, values and beliefs. o Spiritually healthy people are compassionate, honest, humble and forgiving. o Emphasis on personal fulfillment o As a health care worker, you must respect your client’s spirituality
DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH INTELLECTUAL HEALTH o o Achieved by keeping the mind active and creative throughout life. Intellectually healthy people: n n o Those with poor intellectual health: n n n o Maintain curiosity throughout life Are interested in the world around them Analyze, reason and solve problems Open minded and eager to learn Are passive Do not participate Often suffer from poor emotional, social and physical health As a health care worker, you can help client’s to participate in activities
ILLNESS & DISABILITY What is the difference between illness and disability? o Illness – loss of physical or mental health o Disability – loss of physical or mental function n o o o Remember disabled does not mean ill Illness of disabilities can be acute or chronic (short or long term/permanent) Regardless of the illness or disability, the health care worker must try to help the client achieve their optimal health No 2 clients will experience illness/disability the same way, however, there are some common reactions n n n Fear and anxiety Sadness and grief Depression * Denial * Anger
ILLNESS & DISABILITY Factors affecting a client’s experience may include: o The nature of the illness o Age o Physical fitness o Pain o Prognosis o Personality o Culture o Support
ILLNESS & DISABILITY Those will a new disability or illness may experience change and loss including: o Change in routine o Change in work life o Change in family life o Change in sexual function o Change in self-image o Loss of independence o Loss of dignity As a health care worker you must ensure that stigma and discrimination do not affect your care o Stigma – a characteristic that marks someone as different or flawed o Discrimination – treating people unfairly based on their group membership
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH o What makes a population healthy? o Determinants of health are the factors that determine health status. There are 12 key factors o 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Income and social status Social support networks Education and literacy Employment and working conditions Social Supports Physical environments Personal health practices and coping skills Healthy child development Biology and genetic endowment Health Services Gender Culture
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH 1. INCOME & SOCIAL STATUS n 2. SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS n 3. Support from family, friends, community improves health EDUCATION & LITERACY n n n 4. Income determines living conditions & diet Health improves with higher education Improves socioeconomic status Improves the ability to access health information EMPLOYMENT & WORKING CONDITIONS n n Unemployment, stressful and unsafe work are associated with poor health A less stressful/demanding job improves quality and length of life
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH SOCIAL SUPPORTS 5. n Resources that are available for support PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS 6. n Pollution in the air, water, soil can cause several adverse health effects. PERSONAL HEALTH PRACTICES/COPING SKILLS 7. n n Individual choices influence other health factors Choices are affected by work, live, learn, play HEALTHY CHILD DEVELOPMENT 8. n Greatly influenced by housing, community, family income, parents education, diet, exercise, genetics and access to health care BIOLOGY & GENETIC ENDOWMENT 9. n Can predispose people to particular diseases.
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH 10. HEALTH SERVICES n 11. GENDER n 12. Many health issues are gender related CULTURE n n o Services designed to maintain and promote health, prevent disease and restore health have an impact on one’s health. Lack of access due to culture Culture affects health The interrelationship of these factors is very important. Why?