- Slides: 39
Health (건강) • • Physical health (육체적 건강) Mental health (정신적 건강) Public health (공중보건) Nutrition (영양), Exercise (운동) Hygiene (위생) Stress management (스트레스 관리) Health care (건강관리) Workplace wellness programs(직장건강)
Medical Inventions (의학발명품) • • • 1895 1903 1905 1928 1931 1938 X-ray 심전도 혈압계 penicillin 전자현미경 항생제 • • • 1957 1967 1970 1973 1979 1982 심장박동기 심장이식 MRI & f. MRI CT scan 초음파검사 인공심장
Modern Medicine (현대의학) • Medicine was revolutionized in the 19 th century by advances in chemistry(화학) and laboratory techniques and equipment. • old ideas of infectious disease epidemiology were replaced with bacteriology(세균학) and virology(바이러 스학).
Modern Medicine • Bacteria and microorganisms were first observed with a microscope(현미경) by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, initiating the scientific field microbiology(미생물학). • Ignaz Semmelweis (1818 -1865) in 1847 dramatically reduced the death rate of new mothers from childbed fever by the simple expedient of requiring physicians to clean their hands before attending to women in childbirth.
Modern Medicine • British surgeon Joseph Lister proved the principles of antisepsis(소독) in the treatment of wounds.
Modern Medicine • Charles Darwin's 1859 publication of The Origin of Species(종의 기원). • Mendel (1822 -1884) published in 1865 his books on pea plants, which would be later known as Mendel's laws. • Re-discovered at the turn of the century, they would form the basis of classical genetics(유전학). • The 1953 discovery of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick would open the door to molecular biology( 분자생물학) and modern genetics(현대유전학).
Modern Medicine • Eugenics(우생학, 인종개량), in 1865 by Francis Galton. • the Nazis experiments in World War II. • compulsory sterilization (불임) programs continued to be used in modern countries (including the US, Sweden and Peru).
Modern Medicine • Pasteur invented with Claude Bernard (18131878) the process of pasteurization(저온살균법) still in use today. • Pasteur, along with Robert Koch (who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1905), founded bacteriology(세균학). • Koch was also famous for the discovery of the tubercle bacillus(결핵균) (1882) and the cholera bacillus(콜레라균).
Modern Medicine • Florence Nightingale showed the elemental role of nursing(간호) in order to lessen the aggravation of patient mortality which resulted from lack of hygiene and nutrition(위생과영양). • Nightingale set up the St Thomas hospital, post-Crimea, in 1852.
Modern Medicine • the decline in many of the most lethal diseases was more due to improvements in public health(공중보 건) and nutrition(영양) than to medicine. It was not until the 20 th century that the application of the scientific method to medical research began to produce multiple important developments in medicine, with great advances in pharmacology(약 리학) and surgery(외과학). • During the First World War, Alexis Carrel and Henry Dakin developed the Carrel-Dakin method of treating wounds with an irrigation(세척), Dakin's solution, which was a germicide(살균제) which helped prevent gangrene.
Modern Medicine • The great war spurred the usage of Roentgen's X-ray, and the electrocardiograph( 심전도), for the monitoring(감시) of internal bodily functions. • However, this was overshadowed by the remarkable mass production of penicillum antibiotics(항생제), which resulted from government and public pressure.
Modern Medicine • new medical categories of mental illness(정신 병), which eventually came into psychiatric usage despite their basis in behavior • Seizure(간질) • Lobotomy(대뇌백질 절제술) (cutting parts of the brain apart) • Antipsychotic(항정신제) chlorpromazine • therapeutic communities(공동체 치료)
Modern Medicine • the evidence-based medicine(근거기반의 학) • information technology(정보기술) • the Human genome project - 유전자지도
People are living longer!
Drugs and medical care +5 years
Public Health impact +25 years
Public Health achievements in the 20 th century • Immunizations(예방접종) • have virtually eliminated: – Smallpox(천연두, 마마) – Diphtheria(디프테리아) – Pertussis(백일해) – Tetanus(파상풍) – Polio(소아마비) – Measles(홍역) – Rubella(풍진)
Public Health achievements in the 20 th century • Infectious disease control