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Health and Climate Change Adaptation in Barbados Winfred Greaves, MPH
Projections for Barbados and the Caribbean • “…irrespective of season, surface temperature is projected to increase by 2. 0˚C – 3. 0˚C across the entire Caribbean…Projections for Jamaica (north), Trinidad (south), and Barbados (east) indicate a warming of up to 2. 5˚C, 2. 0˚C and 3. 0˚C respectively across all months
Projections for Barbados and the Caribbean • …future annual rainfall over the main Caribbean domain suggest a decrease of 10 -30%. . . there is also indication that the number of hot days and nights will significantly increase over the Caribbean basin” Trevor C. Hall et. al. Future climate of the Caribbean from a super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model.
Health And Climate Change Adaptation Project • Principals: – Global Environment Facility (GEF) – United Nations Development Program (UNDP) – World Health Organization/Pan American Heath Organization (WHO/PAHO) – Seven countries: Barbados; Bhutan; China; Fiji; Jordan; Kenya; and Uzbekistan
Choice of Barbados 1. Small island developing state 2. Impact of sea-level rise (saline intrusion) 3. Water scarcity
Goal and Objective of the Project Goal: • To reduce Barbados’ vulnerability to climate change by improving its ability to protect human health and its capacity to adapt. Objective: • To strengthen national adaptive capacity to address health issues related to climate change which is attributable to water scarcity.
Outcomes and Outputs for Achieving Objective Outcome 1: An early warning and response system with timely information on likely incidence of climatesensitive health risks established. Output 1. 1: Analysis of relationship between meteorological variables and incidence of waterrelated diseases and dengue to develop early warning system, with flexibility to update as climate change and other trends alter relationships.
Outcomes and Outputs for Achieving Objective Outcome 2: Capacity of health sector institutions to respond to climate-sensitive health risks based on early warning information improved. Output 2. 1: Adaptation of global guidelines to define national standards and enforcement practice for safe use of wastewater, and response to warnings of elevated risks.
Outcomes and Outputs for Achieving Objective • Outcome 3: Disease prevention measures piloted in areas of heightened risk due to climate change. • Output 3. Implementation of community based public health education campaigns on safe-use of wastewater and on dengue vector control, targeted on periods of high climatic risks.
Barbados’ Project Logo
Water Adaptation Maintaining a stable water supply for agriculture requires both demand-side strategies, such as recycling and conserving water, and supply-side strategies, such as water storage. Thornton et al. , 2012
Models of Adaptation • Demand-side strategies: – desalination – reinjection of wastewater (tertiary level) into underground aquifers – irrigation – flushing of toilets – car washing (using rain water)
Models of Adaptation Supply-side strategies: – tanks for rain water storage (below and above ground) – dams
Health Impacts of Climate Change Vectorborne diseases: dengue Foodborne diseases: salmonellosis Waterborne diseases: cholera NCDs: Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (approx. 40, 282 persons, 14% of population) • Hypertension (approx. 52, 834 persons, 18% of population; Commission on NCD, Battling the Enemy 2011) • •
Challenges • Barbados as a water scarce country • Reaction to reuse of waste water
Solutions • Education – starting with the primary level • Dissemination of information by experts at the community level • Continued subsidies in water conservation by government • Enforcement of laws for public water wastage • More enabling environment for the acquisition of relevant equipment and materials