- Slides: 31
Gunpowder Empires Unit 4 1450 -1750
Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal
Common Elements They were Islamic They existed around the same time Established by nomadic Turkish conquerors First post-Mongol empires to use gunpowder as main weapon Centralized gov. with bureaucracies to manage empire Experienced similar means of decline LAND BASED empires (vs. Spain/ England after 1500)
Ottoman Stats From 1300 s-1922 AD (longest lived) Religion: Sunni Named after Osman. Took place of Seljuk Turks after Mongol attacks Spread throughout Anatolia (Turkey), Balkans, Eastern Europe (up to Vienna), Arabia, and Northern Africa Central monarchy: the sultan. (Suleyman) Grand Vizier as the advisor.
Safavid Stats 1502 -1722 AD Shi’ite and Sufi (later banned) Founder: Ismail (Safaviya) Took control after Timur (Mongol) Central monarchy: the Shah. (Ismail and Abbas I) Long time enemy of Ottomans Persian influence (Persia…Abbasid… Il Khanate of Persia… Safavid… Iran)
Ready for the fight Ottoman Cavalry= warrior aristocracy +land grant system +no guns Janissaries= conquered male Christian Islam converts. Foot soldiers. +guns +growth in power (good-bye cavalry) Safavid Qizilbash=nomadic elite +land grant +no guns gunpowder troops made up of slaves (Christian Islam converts) Never possessed a navy More open to European input
Ottoman and Safavid Life Absolute monarchy, loses touch with people over time Lacked clear rules for succession political turmoil and eventual decline of empire Religiously tolerant. Non-Muslims=high tax Merchants came to hold great power Istanbul become important international center of trade. Women not allowed out in public.
Tale of Two Cities Istanbul Isfahan Huge center of trade. (port city) Center of trade (land locked) Large palaces Cosmopolitan Multi-ethnic More simplistic architecture Little to no wheeled vehicles Elaborate architecture No wheeled vehicles Known for silk and Persian rugs
Decline Inflation caused by cheap silver Land-grant= major tax problem Resistant/unable to keep up with changes (Europe) +Ottoman= out traded +Safavid= resistant to technology HOW DOES THIS COMPARE TO EUROPE AT THIS TIME?
Decline Ottoman Too big to maintain Elites lose touch= janissaries revolt Domains return to local groups (unofficially) Tax farming WWI Safavid Weak rulers= disruption of silk production Lost support of nomads Maurding Afghans took control
Mughal Stats 1526 -1761 (name lasted until 1800 s) Babur (Turko-Mongol) descendant of Timur Famous ruler: Akbar the Great (1556 -1605) Muslim rulers in a mostly Hindu country Major challenge: central control of a region used to regional control No NAVY
Akbar the Great Empire at its peak Improved Muslim Hindu relations: - encouraged intermarriage -Rajputs in high gov. positions - abolished jizra or non-Muslim tax (sort of) -respected cows, lifted ban on Hindu buildings Creates “Divine Faith” Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrianism, Christian, and Sikh dies with him Great-grandson Aurangzeb changes everything
Life in Mughal Had the land-grant system for military elite Patriarchal -child marriages -sati Taj Mahal building (architecture, female power) Growth of Sikhism= Hindu + Islam -Aurangzeb kills ninth guru= angry Sikhs -resistance helps Mughal decline Miniature paintings, poetry, and public works
Mughal-nomics Trade: cotton, indigo, and silk Privately owned ships= Indian, English, or Dutch European countries highly valued Indian cotton
Mughal Decline Aurangzeb, religious zealot, does not make a lot of friends. Expands empire Fighting and forcing conversion to Islam= drain on money Too busy converting= regional leaders fighting to take back control (Afghanistan, Deccan plateau, Bengal) After his death there is political instability. European joint-stock companies take advantage= later European domination Land-grant failures
Trade Empires Indian Ocean (1600 -1729) Trade networks maritime empires Advantage Europeans: -better ships and navigation -cannons -joint-stock companies (Eng. East India Company and Dutch East India Company) Biggest opponent: Muslim traders
Islamic Success Encouraged intermarriage Southeast Asia: -not sure how it spreads (merchants or sufi preachers) -port cities to the inland Resistance to Europeans: Acheh (Sumatra) and Brunei (Borneo) Islam modified slightly to adapt to cultures
Dutch Invasion Kick Portuguese out of East Indies Dutch East India Company -efficient -governor-general’s absolute power Control of spices 1 st- took Malacca 2 nd-took control of Java and Sumatra 3 rd-set-up colony of Batavia Traders to producers (teak and coffee) Reached Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand
East Africa Swahili Port cities= Muslim Not unified -geography -commercial competition (amber, gold, ivory, ambergris, and slaves) Slaves for Arabian ports and India Portuguese take control 1650 Omani Arabs kick out Portuguese