- Slides: 14
Gunpowder Empires: 1450 -1750
Land-Based Gunpowder Empires: Some Examples �Ottomans (Anatolia, N. Africa, Middle East, E. Europe) �Safavids (Persia, Central Asia) �Mughals (Afghanistan, Pakistan, N. India) �Qing China �Russian Empire
Characteristics �Land-based : spread out into contiguous territory from a “home base” (compare to maritime empires based out of Europe) �Reliance on infantry �Land-grant military systems �Cost of militaries = increased centralization
Characteristics (Cont’d) �Islamic Gunpowder Empires all traced their heritage back to nomadic central Asian roots �Traditional – these empires shared traits we’ve seen throughout history up to this point �Often, armies were made up of slave-soldiers (rather than European feudal model) to ensure loyalty to the central ruler
Islamic Flowering: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal �Vast, diverse Muslim world was extremely advanced culturally, economically, and technologically �Flowering of culture as in the Abbasid Caliphate era �Suleyman the Magnificent a. k. a. the Lawgiver (Ottoman); Abbas I the Great (Safavid); Akbar (Mughal) = golden age rulers �Coffeehouses popular place for cultural life
Shah Mosque, Istahan (w/ blue tiles)
Common Problems �TOO BIG (transportation & communication issues) �Nomadic heritage = unruly warrior elites �Rise of European rivals Europe = small states, strong rivalries and competition = technologies & weapons developed rapidly; trade routes moved to ocean routes controlled by Europe (the Atlantic system)
Long-Term Changes �Ottoman, Safavid, & Mughal Empires came from Turkic, nomadic roots BUT �Central Asian nomadic threats ended w/ gunpowder – conquered and subjugated
Discussion! �“Of the previous Sultans, there were many who ruled the land, but few who rued the sea. In the conduct of war at sea, the infidels are superior to us. We must overcome them. ” Suleyman the Magnificent’s Grand Vizir �Why do you think traditional land based empires didn’t adequately meet the challenge of changing the basis of power to sea-based militaries, eventually leading them to being eclipsed by European powers?
Compare & Contrast: Land Powers vs. Sea Powers �Create a T-chart or Venn Diagram and list at least 6 qualities of each type of power underneath
Discussion! �Why do you think, long-term, that sea power was more effective than land-based empires?