Growth and Expansion Booklet
Growth and Expansionism Booklet Section 1: Nationalism and Sectionalism Vocabulary Review Questions Notes Section 2: Religion and Reform Vocabulary Review Questions Notes Section 3: Manifest Destiny Vocabulary Review Questions Notes
Section 1: Nationalism and Sectionalism I. Vocabulary Industrial Revolution Francis Cabot Lowell Girl Interchangeable parts Eli Whitney Tariff of 1816 Cotton Gin Nationalism Henry Clay American System Adams-Onis Treaty Monroe Doctrine Missouri Compromise Jacksonian Democracy Spoils System Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears Tariff of Abominations John Calhoun Nullification
Sectionalism and Nationalism Notes Industry and Transportation Technology transform manufacturing Industrial Revolution Shift from agriculture to industry- New England flourishes Textile factories, Lowell Mills, interchangeable parts, mass production North vs. South Economy o. North: smaller farms, growing cities, little need for slavery o. South: Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin- increases need for slavery cash crop
An Era of Nationalism Worried about sectionalism, Henry Clay proposes the American Systemunite country o. Transportation system o. Protective tariff (make citizens buy US goods) o. Re-establish a national bank Tariff of 1816 - tax on imports from Euro helps NE industry, hurts S. farmers Several Supreme Courts cases boosted gov’t power o. Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)Steamboat operators arguing over territory; gov’t says US controls interstate commerce o. Mc. Culloch vs. Maryland (1819)Maryland tries to tax the Fed. Bank US says no
n n n Hudson River School- landscape painters form a school Foreign policy based on nationalism nat’l interest above regional concerns 1819 - US gains FL from Spain Adams-Onis Treaty The Monroe Doctrine (1823)- Pres. Monroe says the western hemisphere is “closed”- no new colonies from outside powers US promised not to interfere with Euro issues Nationalism did not help growing slavery crisis: n The Missouri Compromise n n Missouri and Maine apply for statehood 10 free states, 10 slave states Miss. wants to be slave upset balance and starts arguments Henry Clay proposes compromise- Miss. will be slave, Maine will be free 36◦ 30’ parallel was dividing line
Age of Jackson “Corrupt Bargain” Election 1824 o. Jackson wins pop. Vote, but tied electoral votes o. House of Reps to decide winner, Henry Clay disliked Jackson, convinces HR to vote for John Adams o. Jackson wins in 1828 Jackson practices spoils system- appointing friends to gov’t jobs Native American issues- displace or convert? Indian Removal Act of 1830 - Remove NA to lands further west Cherokee fight back- Worcester vs. Georgia o. Gov’t allows Cherokee to stay on land, but Jackson refused o. Trail of Tears- 800 mile journey; ¼ died
States’ Rights and a National Bank Gov’t keeps increasing taxes on imports (N. likes, S. hates) Tariff of Abominations was final straw- extremely high protective tariff S. very mad The South Carolina Exposition- VP Calhoun writes nullification doc 1832 - SC threatens to secede if tax isn’t stopped, tariff is reduced Economic Problems Jackson hates idea of BUS- corrupt idea Jackson suggests “Pet Banks”-put gov’t funds in local banks devoted to Dem. Party Whig Party is created in opposition to Jackson Martin Van Buren (1836 -1840) Allows economy to fall into tail spin- Panic of 1837 Whig Party vs. Dems William Henry Harrison elected, died one month later
Section 1: Nationalism and Sectionalism Review Questions 1. How did transportation developments and industrialization affect the nation’s economy? 2. How did the North and South differ during the first half of the 1800 s? 3. How did domestic and foreign policies reflect the nationalism of the times? 4. What changes did Andrew Jackson represent in American political life? 5. What major political issues emerged during the 1830 s? 6. Categorize and explain the factors that led to less industrial growth in the South than in the North.
Section 2: Religion and Reform I. Vocabulary Second Great Awakening Evangelical Joseph Smith Mormon Unitarian Utopian Community Transcendentalist Public School Movement Horace Mann Dorothea Dix Temperance Movement Freedman Nat Turner Abolition Movement William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Sojourner Truth Women’s Movement Seneca Falls Convention Suffrage
Section 2: Religion and Reform II. Review Questions 1. What were the main features of the public school, penitentiary, and temperance reform movements? 2. How did reformers try to help enslaved people? 3. What steps did American women take to advance their rights in the mid- 1800 s? 4. Why did the Second Great Awakening begin? What were some of the ways that it changed American Society? 5. How successful were slave revolts in helping enslaved African Americans resist slavery? 6. What similar ideas did abolitionists and women’s rights reformers hold?
Religion and Reform Notes Religion Sparks Reform Religious revival sweeps America- Second Great Awakening ( focus on individual salvation) Gathered large groups for days long sessions- revivals Some reformers wanted an alternative culture o. Transcendentalism Living simply and truth in nature Literary movement follows- Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau (Walden Utilitarianism- emphasize reason to path to perfection School and prison reform important- Dorothea Dix- focus on mentally ill and prisoners 1800 s- no uniform school policy Horace Mann, implement 1 st BOE
Slavery and Abolition was fueled by reform movement White abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison- newspaper The Liberator called for immediate emancipation Garrison begins working with ex-slave Frederick Douglass The North Star Women and Reform Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott- Abolitionist and Women’s Reformer Women restricted to home and family- Cult of Domesticity Grimke Sisters argued for abolition, hoping it would eventually lead to women reform Fight for temperance- prohibit drinking and sale of alcohol- downfall of society Seneca Falls Convention: Held NY, Stanton and Mott create a women’s Declaration of Independence
Section 3: Manifest Destiny I. Vocabulary Manifest Destiny Santa Fe Trail Mountain Men Oregon Trail Brigham Young Treaty of Fort Laramie Stephen Austin Santa Anna Autonomy Lone Star Republic Alamo Sam Houston James K. Polk Zachary Taylor Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Gadsden Purchase Wilmot Proviso Forty-Niners Placer mining
Section 3: Manifest Destiny II. Review Questions 1. What long term effects did the introduction of horses and firearms have on Native Americans in the west? 2. Who might have agreed with the idea of Manifest Destiny? Who would have disagreed? 3. Why do you think so few women or families made their way west? 4. In what way was the fighting in Texas the responsibility of both the Anglo- Texans and the Mexican government? 5. Identify three effects of the California Gold Rush. Which effect do you think was most important in the long term? 6. What other groups of people, besides farmers, made their way west in the 1800 s? Why?
Manifest Destiny Notes The Market Revolution Shift from self sufficiency to specialization- raising cash crops to sell Leads to market revolution- ppl buy and sell goods rather than making them for their own use Inventions make life easier- farmers and industrial businessmen o. Telegraph o. Railroads Manifest Destiny Expansion fever grips nation- US destiny is to expand to Pacific Ocean mandated by God NA unsettled by Manifest Destiny Treaty of Fort Laramie gives NA control of central plains territory promising in exchange not to attack new settlers Santa Fe Trail- Missouri to New Mexico Brigham Young leads group of Mormons to Utah-escape religious persecution 1844 -James Polk calls for annexation of Oregon, British forts still there “Fifty Four Forty or Fight” becomes rallying cry (Northern limit for boundary)
Expansion in Texas More Americans in Texas than Mexicans Tensions build b/t Mexicans and Americans- Mexico places restrictions on Texas growth Texas declares a war for Independence Remember the Alamo o. Texas militia faces Mexican Army at the Alamo, an abandoned fort-Santa Anna destroys the small army- kills all involved Sam Houston later beat Santa Anna & declared a Republic of Texas 1845 - Texas becomes a US state ( Fight over slavery)
War with Mexico James K Polk urges war with M. to gain lands farther westquestion over Texas border and slavery Requests to buy Cali and New Mexico refused Polk sees this as war Zach Taylor led troops to Rio Grande & built forts Mexico attacks War lasts for about a year- sign Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo o. Agree to Rio Grande border o. Gains Mexican Cession- CA, NV, NM, UT, AR, CO, WY o. Concludes lower 48 Movement to forbid slavery in new territory Wilmot Proviso