Group members: Choong Choy Teng Cui Tingting Do Thi Hong Van Goh Siok Lee Le Nguyen Hanh Phuong Nguyen Dinh Song Anh Tan Jia Ling Esther Tran Phuong Quynh Woon Shi Yun Yang Kailin I NTEGRATING S OLAR P ANELS ON BUILDINGFACADES INGAPORE Presenting to Far East Organisation CEO, Mr Michael Chew
O UTLINE Introduction Prospects Benefits Installations Limitations Overcoming the Limitations Conclusion
O RIGIN OF SOLAR PANELS
I NTRODUCTION Purpose Study the feasibility of incorporating façade-integrated solar panels in Singapore context INTRODUCTION - Purpose
I NTRODUCTION State of our environment 43 years worth of Oil left 197 years worth of Gas left 417 years worth of Coal left INTRODUCTION - Background
I NTRODUCTION To prepare ourselves for that day, we have to make use of renewable energy technology. Solar Energy Electrical Energy
I NTRODUCTION Why Solar Energy Renewable & inexhaustible Free energy resource Pollution-free INTRODUCTION - Background
I NTRODUCTION Utilization of Solar Energy in Buildings Cost effective Energy efficient Low maintenance cost
I NTRODUCTION Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) Installing solar panels as part of building structure Roofs, curtain walls, and sunshades are potential areas for incorporating solar panels
I NTRODUCTION Objectives Integrating solar panels on the building facades to generate clean energy achieve energy savings INTRODUCTION - Background
P ROSPECTS OF S OLAR P ANELS INGAPORE
S INGAPORE’S E FFORTS $50 million MND Research Fund for the Built Environment to encourage Prime Minister Lee Hsien Minister of as National Development Mah Bow. Loong Tan and sustainable development projects such announced that clean energy has Minister integrating solar technologies into for Environment and Water Resources Dr been elevated a strategic Yaacob Ibrahim, put forth the S$1 asbillion greengrowth plan to building facades. It covers 30% to 75% of areathe fornext Singapore. be implemented over five years to help build a the qualifying cost of the project. BCA’s Green Mark Scheme greener, more energy efficient and sustainable nation. introduced. 2005 1992 Jan 2007 Sep 2009 March 2007 Early 2007 2008 Early 2009 S$17 million Clean Energy Research and Test. The idea of Spore S$20 million Solar Capability Housing and(NRF) Development bedding (CERT)Research introduced to provide supports The National Foundation identified. Board the (HDB) plugging into Scheme (SCS) to encourage the introduced the S$31 million largest for companies develop clean solar energy field of Clean to Energy, with emphasis on solar technology, solar power was integration of solar panels into solar test-bed project in Singapore, applications usingarea government buildings and as a key growth and dedicate a total of S$170 raised, discussed green building by subsidizing to install solar panels in 30 HDB facilities. million to develop and aimed build R&D and manpower and dismissed. up to 40% of the project costs. bynext 2015. competencies in Clean eco-precincts Energy over the five years.
P ROSPECTS Singapore’s Aim To increase Singapore's cumulative installed base of solar systems from 200 k. W (in 2008) to 5 m. W "Singapore aims to be a 'Living Lab' where companies can test-bed and demonstrate solutions. . . to help build the critical capabilities of solar players. . . “ – Dr Beh Swan Gin, EDB's Managing Director
P ROSPECTS Suitability in Singapore “High amount, constant and even provision and the predominately diffuse nature of solar radiation are key advantages for gridconnected BIPV in Singapore. ” – Steven K. Wittkopf
P ROSPECTS Current situation regarding solar energy globally: Germany and Japan, the leading users of solar power, are a long way ahead in the game. The price of solar power is falling by 5% a year. How then will Singapore compete? It is known that solar panels perform better on the roof than on façade. We can aim to research on the solutions and export this knowledge to other countries.
P ROSPECTS Tampines Grande, one of Singapore’s private sector test-beds, uses Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) panels as part of its façade.
P ROSPECTS Why on Façade? Land limitations in Singapore High concentrations of tall buildings per hectare of land Large size of façades Large areas available for receiving solar radiation INTRODUCTION - Background
P ROSPECTS High-rise linear commercial buildings Upper storeys of building façade
B ENEFITS BIPV Viable Green Building Strategy INTRODUCTION - Background Promising renewable energy technology
B ENEFITS Greater material cost saving Lower cost of electricity No extra space and cost needed for installation INTRODUCTION - Background
B ENEFITS Eye-appealing appearance Weather protection Environmentally friendly power generation INTRODUCTION - Background
I NSTALLATIONOF S OLAR PANEL ON FACADE
I NSTALLATION Methods of installing solar panels on the façade of the building are similar to the roof. Installation on the roofs depends on the type of the roof. Other types of installations are independent like Amorphous or Thin film PV and Building Integration Photovoltaic
I NSTALLATION Installation of solar panels on building façade will be similar to the installation of the curtain walls. Due to the used of BIPV technology on the building façade. For example, mounting pieces of solar panels onto the structural system of the envelope of the building.
I NSTALLATION Types of curtain wall installation: Stick system Unit and mullion system Type of installation selected: Unit and mullion system
I NSTALLATION Curtain wall installation unit and mullion system
I NSTALLATION Below are the steps of installation: 1. Set out main marking 2. Installation of anchorage angle plate to floor 3. Installation of mullion 4. Installation of horizontal transom 5. Installation of glass panel with modules integrated
I NSTALLATION Below are the steps of installation: 6. Installation of interior mullion trim 7. Install the cable connection of the solar panel to the switch room 8. Seal the surrounding with waterproofing compound like sealant (single-stage joint) as a air and rain barrier 9. Inspection after installation
I NSTALLATION Must comply with the building codes. Must take into consideration all load imposed on the solar panels during design stage.
I NSTALLATION Connected. Electricity by a directconverted current by the DC energy needs to go (DC) cable solar with negative cells comes andout as DC through an inverter to positive polarities energy. convert DC into alternative current (AC) Actual generated power AC will be linked into the electrical switch board. THE COMPONENTS THAT MAKE UP A TYPICAL GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEM. (SOURCE: HTTP: //WWW. SOLARSHOP. CO. UK/SOLAR-POWERED-ELECTRIC. HTM)
L IMITATIONS (a) (b) (c) (d) Position of solar panels Shading & Shadowing (design & surrounding of the buildings) Thermal heat transfers Cost of solar panels
P OSITION OF SOLAR PANELS Why solar panels installed on the façade are not able to be exposed to direct sunlight? (a) Singapore is located near to the equator. (b) Her sun path is always upright, +/- degree
P OSITION OF SOLAR PANELS Why solar panels on façade has lower efficiency as compared to the roof? Solar panels installed on the east or/and west façade will only be exposed to direct sunlight for half the day.
S HADING & SHADOWING Fact: By shading just 10% of a photovoltaic surface can reduce the total output by more than 50%. Hence, the output of power will drop significantly even with small shadows.
S HADING & SHADOWI NG Factors result in shading and shadowing: Design of the buildings Buildings are slender and tall often cast shadows of themselves or on other buildings. Distances between buildings As compared to roof , façade systems are most susceptible to shading from adjacent buildings required great distance between buildings than roof systems
S HADING & SHADOWING Unwanted shadowing situations will limit the total amount of solar gains on the façade. It reduces the efficiency of energy production since they do not receive direct sunlight.
T HERMAL HEAT TRANSFER During the conversion of energy within the solar panels, heat is generated. Heat will enter into the building and increase energy consumption of the air-conditioning The increase in energy consumption will increase the electrical costs.
T HERMAL HEAT TRANSFER The higher temperature of the solar cells, the lower the efficiency of the conversion to electricity. For example, the high temperature (75°C) will cause a drop of 25% of the power being converted into electricity.
C OST OF SOLAR PANEL Solar panels is high capital investments. Frank Phua of Singaporean solar manufacturer Sunseap Enterprise commented that it would take “ 16 years to break even compared to buying electricity on the grid” (Tan, 2009)
C OST OF SOLAR PANEL Professor Lee Siew Eang from National University of Singapore mentioned that “currently in Singapore the electricity generated from solar panels is more expensive than buying from the power grid. This is due to a lack of incentives from the government”.
C OST OF SOLAR PANEL Recently, the Singapore government has introduced some subsidies scheme. For example, solar capability scheme subsidises up to 40% of the project cost. Only increase a small number of developers interested in the installation of solar panels.
C OST OF SOLAR PANEL Main concern is on the initial cost of installation instead of the long run reductions in electrical costs. Investors worry that if a huge amount of initial cost is spent, there may not be returns in the future. They would rather rely on the current energy technologies available.
O VERCOMING L IMITATIONS (a) (b) (c) (d) Position and angle Thermal heat transfer Design of building Cost of solar panels
O VERCOMING THE POSITION & ANGLES (a) (b) (c) Average hourly clearness index Solar irradiance Tilt angle
A. A VERAGE HOURLY CLEARNESSINDEX Characterization of sky conditions over a defined area Influences amount of sunlight that panel can receive
A. A VERAGE HOURLY CLEARNESSINDEX
B. S OLAR IRRADIANCE Amount of solar energy that arrives at a specific area at a specific time Determine if the location of panels is able to receive optimal sunlight
B. S OLAR IRRADIANCE
C. T ILT ANGLE Angle at which a solar module is set to face the sun relative to a horizontal position Adjusted to maximize energy collection
C. T ILT ANGLE
O VERCOMING THERMAL HEAT TRANSFER
O VERCOMINGTHERMAL HEAT TRANSFER
O VERCOMING THE DESIGN OF BUILDING
O VERCOMING T HE D ESIGN OF B UILDING Upper floor façade Advancement in appearance of solar cells Poticer Solar in semi transparent glass
O VERCOMING THE COST OF SOLAR PANELS
O VERCOMINGTHE COST OF SOLAR PANELS The cost of solar panels is a big deterrent, preventing people from incorporating such technology Initiatives Government support Educational seminars and campaigns Improvement in technology
A. G OVERNMENTSUPPORT Official approval system Training Certification Used as criterion to qualify companies that install solar panels for subsidies Increase the confidence of contractors, developer and other clients
A. G OVERNMENTSUPPORT Provide subsidies to: Companies engaging in solar panel installation Developers investing in solar panel technology Public housing buildings
A. G OVERNMENTSUPPORT Subsidies To reduce cost in the short run To gain acceptance and popularity among developers working circles To lead to greater demand for solar panels
B. E DUCATIONALSEMINARS AND CAMPAIGNS Educate people that the high capital cost requirement could be offset by Reduced operating costs Lower cost per unit of efficient silicon photovoltaics used Reduced initial installation cost
B. E DUCATIONALSEMINARS AND CAMPAIGNS Show people the importance of solar The long term benefits it brings about are worth the money
C. I MPROVEMENTIN TECHNOLOGY Increase efficiency of solar panels Cut down operating cost Shorter payback time More effective way of producing solar panels Reduce the cost of silicon photovoltaics material used Costs in general will be reduced
C ONCLUSION "I'd put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power! I hope we don't have to wait till oil and coal run out before we tackle that. ” Thomas Edison 1931
T HANK Y OU Choong Choy Teng Cui Tingting Do Thi Hong Van Goh Siok Lee Le Nguyen Hanh Phuong Nguyen Dinh Song Anh Tan Jia Ling Esther Tran Phuong Quynh Woon Shi Yun Yang Kailin (U 086742 U) (U 086791 M) (U 086749 Y) (U 086725 L) (U 086745 A) (U 077897 B) (U 077924 R) (U 086748 M) (U 087787 E) (U 086774 E)