- Slides: 46
GREEK VALUES AND THEIR GODS AND GODDESSES 9 th Grade Literature
Values of the Ancient Greeks • Courtesy and respect for all classes of people • Courage, trust and discipline • Community and law • Home and family • Obedience to the divine world
Myths • Myths are stories that use fantasy to express ideas about life that cannot be expressed easily in realistic terms. • Myths are basically religious because they are concerned with the relationship between human beings and the unknown or spiritual realm.
The Oral Tradition • In Homer’s time there were no movies or television and probably not any written history. • In order to pass on tales of recent events or the stories of great heroes, gods, and goddesses, men would travel from community to community singing of such events.
The Oral Tradition (cont. ) • These “singers of tales” were known as Rhapsodes. • Rhapsodes were the historians and entertainers as well as the myth-makers of their time. • These singers had to be very talented and work very hard to memorize all of the stories they told.
Greek God and Goddesses The Olympians: Like any normal religion, the gods and goddesses of ancient Greece were who the Greek civilians worshiped and praised daily.
In the Beginning… there was Chaos. He was considered the father of the world, much like Christians believe God is the father. He had 3 children and they are the gods that helped to birth the life that is on Earth. Those gods, Gaea, Nyx, and Erebus, gave birth to the sky, the sea, and the mountains. From there, the Earth began to grow.
Gaia: Goddess of Earth and Nyx: Goddess of Night
Erebus: God of darkness and shadow
The Next Gods… …were called the Titans. They were gigantic and fearful, but not really all that bad. Just moody! The king of the Titans was called Cronus. He killed his father Uranus and maimed his mother Gaea in order to get control of the Earth. He also started eating his own children (the Olympian gods) to keep them from overthrowing him the way he did his own father and mother.
Cronus eating his children & the Titans
But… • Cronus was overthrown by the leader of the next generation of gods, the Olympian gods. Zeus was Cronus’s son, and he is the one who overthrew him. Zeus became the supreme ruler. His brother, Poseidon, became ruler of the ocean. His other brother, Hades, became the ruler of the underworld, which is like Hell, Heaven, and Purgatory all in one. Those three gods were the next to be in charge of the Earth. They, and others, were the main gods that were worshiped by the Greeks.
Zeus: • • • Supreme ruler of the Olympians Married to Hera, who is also his sister Olympian children are Athena, Apollo God of the sky Weapon is the lightning bolt Rules on Mount Olympus, where the Olympian gods live
Poseidon • God of sea, horses, and earthquakes • Brother of Zeus • Weapon is the trident
Hades • • • God of the underworld Brother to Zeus and Poseidon Wife is Persephone, Demeter’s daughter Scepter or horn of plenty is his symbol Cerberus is his pet who helps guard the underworld
Hera • Wife of Zeus, also his sister…. gross!!! • Protector of marriage and family. . . irony? why yes it is! • Symbol is the peacock • Ares and Hephaestus are her children with Zeus
Aphrodite • Goddess of love and beauty • Said to have been born on the foam of the ocean • Married to Hephaestus, who is lame and considered ugly • Son is Eros, also known as cupid • Daughter of Zeus and Dione
Athena • Daughter of Zeus (Zeus got a bad headache and his head split and out popped Athena) • Goddess of war and wisdom • Symbol is the owl • Has no husband or children • Loved helping the mortal heroes in Greek epics, like Odysseus and Perseus
Apollo • • God of sun, light, medicine, and music Father is Zeus Has a twin sister, Artemis The sun, bow, and chariot are some symbols associated with Apollo
Artemis • Goddess of the hunt, forest, and all things wilderness • Twin sister of Apollo • Her bow and her hounds are her symbols • She hates men and opposes the institution of marriage…. very independent woman!
Ares • • God of War Symbol is the spear Only legitimatly claimed son of Hera and Zeus Had numerous affairs, including one with Aphrodite (who’s married to Hephaestus)
Hermes • God of travels and is also called the “Messenger god” • Has a winged hat, winged shoes, and a snake encircled staff • Also the son of Zeus, a product of one of Zeus’s many affairs
Hestia • • Calm goddess of home and hearth Symbol is the hearth with an eternal flame Sister to Zeus, Hades, Hera and Poseidon Never married even though Poseidon tried to court her (yep, her own brother)
Hephaestus • • • Lame god of fire and forge Makes all the gods’ weapons Married to Aphrodite Kind of an alcoholic Parents are rumored to be Zeus and Hera, but they don’t like to claim him because he is unattractive; sometimes portrayed as deformed
All 12 together on Mount Olympus
Because gods like to “play”… • Many of the Olympian gods had numerous affairs with mortals, other lesser gods, sometimes other creatures. As a result, in Greek Mythology there are numerous monsters and creatures, many of whom pop up in Homer’s The Odyssey.
Centaurs: half man, half horse
Cerberus: 3 headed dog who guards the underworld
Cyclops: Giant w/ one eye; children of Poseidon
Fates: 3 women who determine life and death
Medusa: Once beautiful but cursed with extreme ugliness. To look at her turns you to stone.
Minotaur: Half man, half bull
Pegasus: Winged Horse sired by Poseidon
Sirens: half bird, half women; their singing lures sailors to their deaths