- Slides: 36
Dionysis • Greek god of wine, fertility, and revelry • Events of his life linked him to the cycle of the seasons and the recurring pattern of birth, maturity, death, and rebirth • Worship of Dionysus promoted fertility, guaranteed the return of spring, and provided an ample harvest source: http: //www. artsednet. getty. e du/Arts. Ed. Net/Images/Beauty /hermdioh-l. jpeg
City Dionysus • Home of a large festival started by Peisistratus, ruler of Athens from 560 -510 A. D. • Festival where drama was first presented • Known as the home of drama source: http: //www. artsednet. getty. e du/Arts. Ed. Net/Images/Beauty /hermdioh-l. jpeg
Parts of a Greek Amphitheatre source: http: //didaskalia. berkeley. edu/stagecraft/TDA/tda_i 7. html
Parts of a Greek Amphitheatre source: http: //didaskalia. berkeley. edu/stagecraft/greek. html Theatron source: http: //didaskalia. berkeley. edu/stagecraft/TDA/tdamain. html • “seeing place” where the audiences sat in seats carved into the mountainside
Parts of a Greek Amphitheatre source: http: //didaskalia. berkeley. edu/stagecraft/greek. html Orchestra source: http: //didaskalia. berkeley. edu/stagecraft/TDA/tdamain. html • “dancing place” where the chorus, and later actors, performed.
Parts of a Greek Amphitheatre Skene source: http: //didaskalia. berkeley. edu/stagecraft/TDA/tdamain. html
Parts of a Greek Amphitheatre Skene • “little hut” or house at the back of the proskenion with one or more doors and an upper level used for the appearance of gods or to represent high places. Proskenion • source: http: //didaskalia. berkeley. edu/stagecraft/greek. html main acting area in front of the skene.
Parts of a Greek Amphitheatre source: http: //didaskalia. berkeley. edu/stagecraft/TDA/tdamain. html
Parts of a Greek Amphitheatre Periaktoi • 3 -sided scenery which was rotated to change locale. Triangular prisms with a different scene painted on each of their three sides. Pinakes • Painted panels similar to our modern flats.
Parts of a Greek Amphitheatre Eccyclema (Ekkyklema) • A wagon for wheeling out bodies in tragedies. Rolled out of the skene because there was no violence allowed on stage. Deus ex machina • “god on machine” – a crane like device which lowered gods down to wrap up the story line.
Origin of Tragedy
Origin of Tragedy 534 B. C. • First theatre contest for the best tragedy at City Dionysia. • Thespis is credited as being the first winner. • also known as the first “actor” to step out of the chorus.
Origin of Tragedy • literally means “goat song” • it was believed that the chorus danced for a goat as a prize or around a goat which was then sacrificed. • emerged out of improvisations by the leaders of the dithyrambs. • dithyramb: consisted of an improvised story, sung by the choral leader, and a refrain, sung by the chorus
Origin of Tragedy Actors & Acting • Dithyramb /Chorus • Consisted of a group of 50 men who chanted stories and danced in unison in the festival event. • Words spoken by the chorus came to represent the opinions of the people. • Importance of chorus reduced as actors moved out front.
Origin of Tragedy Actors & Acting • “Three actor rule” dictated that only 3 actors could perform at one time. • To accommodate this rule, actors often portrayed more than one character. (Leaving and returning as a different character. ) • This rule was softened to allow supernatural characters to appear in nonspeaking roles.
Origin of Tragedy Actors & Acting • Greeks placed emphasis on voice. Actors were judged by the beauty of tone and ability to adapt to their speaking to the mood and character.
Origin of Tragedy Actors & Acting • Facial expression was of no importance. • actors were always masked. • gestures and movement were simplified and broadened so they could be seen from far away.
Origin of Tragedy Actors & Acting • All players, except flute players, wore masks. • Masks covered the entire head, thus included the appropriate hair style beard, ornaments, and other features.
Origin of Tragedy Actors & Acting (masks cont. ) • Masks were made of stiffened linen, cork, carved wood, or leather. To shape the mask, the artist molded material around a marble face (like papier-mâché). • These masks covered the entire head of the actor. • The white of the eye was painted while the part of the pupil remained open for the actor to see the stage.
Origin of Tragedy Aristotle (384 – 322 B. C. ) • Developed the first written discussion of tragedy.
Origin of Tragedy Aristotle (384 – 322 B. C. ) Definition of a Tragic Hero • Comes from nobility • Has a Tragic Flaw (simple mistake or a weakness in character) • Encounters a reversal of fortune • Suffers a downfall • Recognizes flaw (in a catharsis)
Origin of Tragedy Aristotle (384 – 322 B. C. ) • • • Requirements for Plot/Action Exposition Rising Action Climax Falling Action Denouement/Resolution
Origin of Tragedy
Playwrights Aeschylus • Earliest Greek tragedy playwright • Added the 2 nd actor • Wrote Orestia, a trilogy
Playwrights Sophocles • Added the 3 rd actor • Wrote Oedipus and Antigone
Origin of Tragedy Aristotle’s Unities Aristotle described tragedy as "an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude. " The Unities are: • Action • Place • Time
Origin of Tragedy Aristotle’s Unities • Action must have an identifiable beginning, middle, and end; a harmonious correlation of whole and parts; a series of events which follow one another inevitably and are related in sequence.
Origin of Tragedy Aristotle’s Unities • Place action must be confined to a single geographical area. • Time action must take place within the time frame of a single day.
Origin of Tragedy The Six Elements of Drama from Aristotle's Poetics 1. Plot or mythos • (refer to plot notes for more info) • central conflict in the story • in comedy, there must be poetic justice (bad guy “gets it” in the end.
Origin of Tragedy The Six Elements of Drama from Aritotle’s Poetics 2. Character or dianoia • • (see tragic hero notes for more info) protagonist – those for the idea antagonist – those against the idea neural – those required to be there to move the story along
Origin of Tragedy The Six Elements of Drama from Aritotle’s Poetics 3. Thought or ethos • Meanings • Focus • Ideas explored
Origin of Tragedy The Six Elements of Drama from Aritotle’s Poetics 4. Language/Diction or lexus • The dialogue • The poetry
Origin of Tragedy The Six Elements of Drama from Aristotle's Poetics 5. Music/Rhythm or melos • all sound 6. Spectacle or opsis • scenery and other visual elements
Playwrights Aristophanes • Greek Comedy playwright • most famous play is Lysistrata
Playwrights Euripedes • emphasized realism • de-emphasized chorus • Wrote Medea and Trojan Women