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GRAMMAR UNIT 5 Signal Words of Present Perfect already, ever, just, never, yet, for , since
• • It has just started raining They’ve already read that book It’s 0: 00 and Peter still hasn’t come Juan hasn't proposed to Jenny yet. She has lived here for twenty years. I have worked here since 1990. Have you ever seen an unicorn? No, I’ve never seen one
I HAVE / SHE HAS + just … For actions that have happened RECENTLY. • Maria has just finished her homework • They have just come from the supermarket • It has just started raining I HAVE / SHE HAS + already We use "already" to express actions that have happened, often earlier than expected , but we don’t know when • I have already done my homework • Blas has already watched “Transformers” the movie • They’ve already read that book TAKE A LOOK AT THE STRUCTURE SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + ALREADY/JUST + PARTICIPLE
I HAVEN’T / SHE HASN’T + PAST PART. + (and QUESTIONS. . ) yet… We use yet for negative sentences and questions. It is used for actions that you think have happened and to express expectations. - Have you eaten at "Friday's" yet? (you can’t believe it) - I haven't been to Europe yet. (But I expect to go there) - Has Matilda been to New York yet? - Have you studied for the test yet? - Juan hasn't proposed to Jenny yet. TAKE A LOOK AT THE STRUCTURE SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS NOT + PARTICIPLE + YET HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + PARTICIPLE + YET ?
Still + PRESENT PERFECT It has the same meaning as YET but they are placed at different places in the sentence. STILL is placed before HAVE/HAS I still haven‘t visited London. YET is placed at the end of the sentence I haven‘t visited London yet. • I’ve been waiting for over an hour and the bus still hasn’t come. • You promised to give me that report yesterday and you still haven’t finished it. It is often used with other tenses as well as the present perfect. I’ve still got all those letters you sent me. Are you still working in the bookshop?
affirmative sentences Dad’s just washed up He finished a few minutes ago Dad’s already washed up It’s done but we don’t know when negative sentences Dad still hasn’t washed up Dad hasn’t washed up yet The dirty plates are still in the sink questions Has Dad washed up yet? You want to know
Imagine your mother has asked you if you have made your bed. You have several possible answers. Mother‘s question: Have you made your bed yet? • Your answer 1: No, I haven‘t made it yet. I‘m sorry. • Your answer 2: No, I still haven‘t made it. I‘m sorry. • Your answer 3: Yes, I have already made it. Stop bothering me! • Your answer 4: I have just made it. Can‘t you see?
GRAMMAR PRACTICE • http: //www. esllounge. com/student/grammar/2 g 7 -just-yetalready. php • http: //perso. wanadoo. es/autoenglish/gr. pres per. i. htm • http: //www. englishgrammarsecrets. com/pres entperfect/exercise 1. swf (To identify tenses) • http: //learnenglish. britishcouncil. org/es/gram mar-reference/just-yet-still-already
Period of time vs A point in time …six years …a week …a month …hours …two hours …a few days …this morning …last week …yesterday …I was a child …Wednesday … 2 o'clock. …last year …June 8 th …I met you
PRESENT PERFECT + for • We use for with a period of time: For six years a week a month hours two hours • I have worked here for five years • She has lived here for twenty years a few days, • We have taught at this school for a long time • Alice has been married for three months • They have been at the hotel for a week
PRESENT PERFECT + since • Since + a point in time since this morning last week yesterday I was a child Wednesday 2 o'clock. • I have worked here since 1990 last year • She has lived here since she was a child June 8 th • We have taught at this school since February I met you • Alice has been married since March 2 nd • They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday
the 70 s ten centuries last weekend Ten seconds Christmas Eve a decade I finished school a couple of days My birthday a long time I was a boy the last month fifteen years the accident we bought this house a month I met you a millennium August then
For + a period of time a millennium ten seconds a long time a decade a couple of days ten centuries fifteen years a month • Since + a point in time we bought this house I met you then the accident the last month last weekend Christmas Eve I finished school my birthday the 70 s I was a boy August
Ever It means "at any time. " One of its uses is in questions: • Have you ever seen a double rainbow? • Has Jim ever been late for work? • Have Julie and her boyfriend ever had a fight? Never It means "not at any time. " Its main use is in negative statements: • They've never arrived late. • She's never fought with her boyfriend. • Bob's never smoked.
ALREADY Affirmative sentences JUST Summing up Acabar de… Ya… Aun , todavia … I’ve already made my bed She has just come from Paris I haven’t read the book yet YET Negative sentences and question STILL Negative sentences I still haven’t read it FOR Time expressions Durante … They’ve lived here for 3 months We have had this dog since June Have you ever eaten turtle? No, I have never eaten it SINCE Desde … EVER Alguna vez … NEVER Nunca…
http: //www. eslgamesplus. com/alr eady-yet-present-perfect-volley/ • http: //www. englishexercises. org/makeagame /viewgame. asp? id=2705 • http: //www. grammarbank. com/ever-neverjust-already-yet. html • http: //www. servator. cat/eva/index_files/Gra mmar/2 ndcycle/4 t. ESO/prsperf 2. htm
Past simple vs Present Perfect • I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago Certain time in the past • I have just phoned Mary. Its’s related with the present Ø He went to Canada last summer. Certain event in the past Ø Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been to Canada twice. ü I bought a new bike. (just telling what I did in Emphasis on the action the past. ) ü I have bought a new bike. (With this sentence I actually want to express that I have a new bike now. ) Emphasis on the result
• Jack grew a beard but now he has shaved it off. • They went out after lunch and they have just come back • I went to bed early last night. • They arrived at the party an hour ago.
Do not use the present perfect if there is no connection with the present (for example, things that happened a long time ago): • The Chinese invented printing. • How many plays did Shakespeare write? Compare these sentences v. Shakespeare wrote many plays. v. My sister is a writer. She has written many books.
We use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening: • Ow! I have cut my finger! • The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.
Compare present perfect and past simple: Present perfect Past simple We use the present perfect for a We use the past simple for a period of time that continues from finished time in the past until now. For example, yesterday, last For example, today, this week, since week, from 1985 to 1991. 1985. • It didn’t rain last week. • It hasn’t rained this week. • Did you see Ann on Sunday? • Have you seen Ann recently? • Tom lived in Scotland for ten • Tom lives in London. He has lived years. Now he lives in London. there for seven years. • I didn’t play golf when I was on holiday last summer. • I have never played golf.
PAST SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE • TIME EXPRESSIONS Yesterday In 2005 Last night Last week Last month Last Monday …. A week/two hours/some years AGO • When Already Just Yet Never Ever How long…? For Since • • http: //www. eslgamesplus. com/present-perfect-vs-past-tenses-rally/ http: //web 2. uvcs. uvic. ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/ppvpast 1. htm
Rephrasing • Katie likes rock music. She first listened to it when she was about twelve. – She has listened rock music SINCE she was 12 • The TV is on. We switched it on at 7 o’clock this morning. – It has been switched of SINCE 7 o’clock • Harry’s a doctor. He became a doctor when he was 20 – He has been a doctor SINCE he was 20 • I don’t see my cousin. He moved to the US in 2011. – I haven’t seen him FOR 5 years • Alice and Clare don’t speak. They had an argument a month ago. – They haven’t spoken FOR a month
• We live in Oxford. We came here in 2008. – We have lived in Oxford SINCE 2008 – We have lived in Oxford FOR 8 years • Kim and Jason are married. They got married last summer. – They have been married FOR a year • I last read a newspaper on June 2 nd. – I haven’t read a newspaper SINCE June 2 nd • It is two years since I saw Tom. – I haven’t seen Tom FOR two years • It's two months since he earned any money. – He has earned money FOR two months • He last shaved the day before yesterday. – He hasn’t shaved FOR two years • I last drank champagne at my brother's wedding – I haven’t drunk champagne SINCE my brother’s wedding
Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong. • How many plays has Shakespeare written? DID SHAKESPEARE WRITE • Have you read any of Shakespeare’s play? RIGHT • Aristotle has been a Greek philosopher. WAS • • Ow! I’ve cut my finger. It’s bleeding. RIGHT My grandparents have got married in London. GOT Where have you been born? WERE YOU BORN • Mary isn’t at home. She’s gone shopping RIGHT
Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong. • • I’ve bought a new car. Do you want to see it? RIGHT I’ve bought a new car last week. BOUGHT Where have you been yesterday evening? WERE YOU Jenny has left school in 1991. LEFT I’m looking for Mike. Have you seen him? RIGHT I’m very hungry. I haven’t eaten anything today. RIGHT Diane hasn’t been at work yesterday. WASN’T When has this book been published? WAS THIS BOOK
Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple. • • GOT WAS When I _______ (get) home last night, I _______ WENT (be) very tired and I _______ (go) straight to bed. HAVE YOU WASHED Your car looks very clean. _________ (you/wash) it? WASN’T George _______ (not/be) very well last week. HAS WORKED Mr Clark _______ (work) in this bank for 15 years. HAS LIVED Molly lives in Dublin. She _______ (live) there for all her life. DID YOU GO ‘_______ (you/go) to the cinema last night? ’ ‘Yes, but it WAS _______ (be) a mistake. The film _______ (be) awful. ’ DIED My grandfather _______ (die) 30 years ago. I DIDN’T MEET _______ (not meet) him. HAVE NEVER MET I don’t know Carol’s husband. I _______ (never/meet/him).
http: //www. eslgamesplus. com/pre sent-perfect-vs-past-tenses-rally/ • http: //www. englishexercises. org/makeagame /viewgame. asp? id=3365 • http: //www. englishexercises. org/makeagame /viewgame. asp? id=4426 • http: //www. englishexercises. org/makeagame /viewgame. asp? id=4769
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS • I HAVE WORKED A LOT TODAY • I HAVE BEEN WORKING THE WHOLE MORNING • SHE HAS PAINTED THE HOUSE • SHE HAS BEEN PAINTING AL THE MORNING