GRAMMAR SUBJECT KNOWLEDGE TEACHING PUNCTUATION 0 Punctuation and

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GRAMMAR SUBJECT KNOWLEDGE: TEACHING PUNCTUATION 0

GRAMMAR SUBJECT KNOWLEDGE: TEACHING PUNCTUATION 0

Punctuation and meaning How many different ways can you punctuate this sentence to create

Punctuation and meaning How many different ways can you punctuate this sentence to create a different meaning each time? A woman without her man is nothing

Punctuation and meaning Speakers use tone of voice to shape meaning. Writers use punctuation

Punctuation and meaning Speakers use tone of voice to shape meaning. Writers use punctuation marks. David Crystal It’s not there! It’s not there?

The power of punctuation What is thing called love? What is thing called, love?

The power of punctuation What is thing called love? What is thing called, love? One comma; two completely different meanings! Using these examples, how would you explain to students one use of the comma?

Punctuation enables writers to: make a text coherent for the reader communicate emphasis and

Punctuation enables writers to: make a text coherent for the reader communicate emphasis and expression for a reader indicate shades of meaning add meaning to a text using graphical effects

Punctuation for coherence Punctuation is about awareness of grammatical chunks to split up texts

Punctuation for coherence Punctuation is about awareness of grammatical chunks to split up texts into sentences indicating clearly where each major chunk of meaning begins and ends we use capital letters and full stops within the sentence we use a variety of punctuation marks to show breaks between phrases clauses and sometimes words. How would you punctuate this text to make it coherent for the reader?

Punctuation is about awareness of grammatical chunks. To split up texts into sentences, indicating

Punctuation is about awareness of grammatical chunks. To split up texts into sentences, indicating clearly where each major chunk of meaning begins and ends, we use capital letters and full stops. Within the sentence, we use a variety of punctuation marks to show breaks between phrases, clauses and, sometimes, words.

Punctuation for emphasis The way a sentence is punctuated: communicates the relative importance and

Punctuation for emphasis The way a sentence is punctuated: communicates the relative importance and relevance of points and can create or solve ambiguities for the reader, e. g: the differences between: A woman without her man is nothing. A woman: without her, man is nothing. by indicating emphasis and expression, punctuation helps us hear the voice, mood and emotions of the writer or a character in a story: And it seemed to happen so slowly, but there was nothing she could do: her weight shifted, the stones moved under her feet, and helplessly she began to slide. In the first moment it was annoying, and then it was comic: she thought how silly! But as she utterly failed to hold on to anything, as the stones rolled and tumbled beneath her, as she slid down towards the edge, gathering speed, the horror of it slammed into her. She was going to fall. There was nothing to stop her. It was already too late. Philip Pullman: The Amber Spyglass

What’s your style? Heavy or light? Black shapes were emerging out of thin air

What’s your style? Heavy or light? Black shapes were emerging out of thin air all around them blocking their way left and right eyes glinted through slits in hoods a dozen lit wand tips were pointing directly at their hearts Ginny gave a gasp of horror Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 35

What’s this writer’s style? Heavy or light? Black shapes were emerging out of thin

What’s this writer’s style? Heavy or light? Black shapes were emerging out of thin air all around them, blocking their way left and right; eyes glinted through slits in hoods, a dozen lit wand tips were pointing directly at their hearts; Ginny gave a gasp of horror. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 35

What some pupils find difficult about punctuation Understanding the differences between spoken and written

What some pupils find difficult about punctuation Understanding the differences between spoken and written language Knowing the rules and when they can be broken Managing the competing demands involved in writing

Using commas We use commas: before but in a compound sentence: Human activity has

Using commas We use commas: before but in a compound sentence: Human activity has put wildlife at risk, but many creatures are now thriving in zoos. to separate the subordinate clause from the main clause when the subordinate clause comes first: Although zoos might be considered cruel, they help preserve endangered species. after an adverbial that links between or across sentences: Crucially, zoos help preserve endangered species. to separate items in a list: Lions, tigers, cheetahs and leopards are all examples of endangered wildcats. round additional information in a sentence that can be removed without affecting meaning (parenthetical commas): Tigers, specifically the Amur Tigers, are the largest cats.

Expanding a sentence & using commas to punctuate the additional grammatical ‘chunks’ The desert

Expanding a sentence & using commas to punctuate the additional grammatical ‘chunks’ The desert was hot. The vast desert, with its endless barren wastes, was hot. All year round, the vast desert, with its endless barren wastes, was hot, scorched by the merciless sun. With its endless barren wastes, the vast desert, scorched by the merciless sun, was hot all year round.

Co-ordinating comma A comma can replace ‘and’ in a sequence of co- ordinated clauses:

Co-ordinating comma A comma can replace ‘and’ in a sequence of co- ordinated clauses: He closed the lid, picked up the suitcase with one hand, took the pole with the net on the end in the other hand, and marched towards the entrance to the cave. He rolled and wiggled, he fought and he figgled, he squirmed and he squiggled. Roald Dahl: The BFG

Colons and semi-colons There is often disagreement about exactly when colons or semi-colons should

Colons and semi-colons There is often disagreement about exactly when colons or semi-colons should be used, but general agreement is that they can be used: as boundary punctuation, an alternative to a full stop: Fox hunting is cruel; it causes great distress to the fox. Here, the semi-colon creates a stronger link between the clauses than a full stop would: the second clause expands and illustrates the first. the semi-colon has a co-ordinating function, linking related ideas (it could be replaced with ‘and’): Fox hunting is a cruel sport; it should be banned.

Colons and semi-colons Semi-colons, like commas, are used to list items or actions: Black

Colons and semi-colons Semi-colons, like commas, are used to list items or actions: Black shapes were emerging out of thin air all around them, blocking their way left and right; eyes glinted through slits in hoods, a dozen lit wand tips were pointing directly at their hearts; Ginny gave a gasp of horror. The example above shows that there are no fixed rules for this kind of use; some authors might separate longer items with commas, some with semi-colons, or - as in the example above – with a mixture.

Colons and semi-colons Colons can be used to introduce a list or an example,

Colons and semi-colons Colons can be used to introduce a list or an example, including a list of bullet points on a Power. Point slide. Colons are also used to connect closely-related ideas, with the colon leading the reader to expect new information in the clause(s) following it: I listened, and at last I heard it: a tiny squeaking sound, far off, like it was coming from another world. And it seemed to happen so slowly, but there was nothing she could do: her weight shifted, the stones moved under her feet, and helplessly she began to slide. A colon must always be a main clause, but what comes after the colon can be a single word, a phrase, or one or more clauses.

Punctuation and meaning Punctuation can add meaning through graphic effects e. g. the use

Punctuation and meaning Punctuation can add meaning through graphic effects e. g. the use of hyphens or inverted commas to show that a word has a special sense: Ø I slowly made my way back to the tumbledown place I called ‘home’. Ø In the first moment it was annoying, and then it was comic: she thought how silly! Ø One Sunday morning the warm sun came up and – pop! – out of the egg came a tiny and very hungry caterpillar. Ø Sometimes, in the rain and dark, worms come up from underground. They seem too small to be important, but watch…the worms are recycling.

Pupils need to be taught the conventions of punctuation within a context in which

Pupils need to be taught the conventions of punctuation within a context in which they: consider the audience and purpose of their writing draw on good examples of writing to explore features of punctuation explore and investigate how punctuation works within different texts consider how writers use punctuation to influence the reader orally rehearse their sentences punctuate accurately as they write constantly reread and review their writing