- Slides: 10
Grammar Gerunds and Infinitives
Gerunds * A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun or present participle. * The term verbal indicates that a gerund is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. * A gerund functions as a noun * A gerund is part of continuous tenses
Examples Gerund as subject: Traveling might be dangerous on rainy days. Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate my singing. Gerund as subject complement: A company's favorite activity is selling. Gerund as object of preposition: They employed him for providing the right answers. Gerund as part of continuous tenses We are studying grammar right now.
Infinitives * An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form). * It can function as a noun, noun complement, or purpose clause. * The term verbal indicates that an infinitive is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being.
Examples ¡ To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. (subject) ¡ Everyone wanted to go. (direct object) ¡ His ambition is to study. (subject complement) ¡ He lacked the strength to resist. (object complement) ¡ We must study to learn. (purpose clause)
Verbs that take only infinitives as verbal direct objects agree decide hesitate learn promise neglect want plan propose intend expect need hope attempt pretend
Verbs that take only gerunds as verbal direct objects deny risk delay consider can't help keep give up be fond of finish quit put off practice postpone tolerate suggest stop (quit) regret enjoy keep (on) admit avoid recall mind miss appreciate recommend dislike detest get/be through get/be tired of get/be accustomed to get/be used to
Verbs that take gerunds or infinitives as verbal direct objects start begin continue hate prefer like love try remember
Complete the sentences using the –ing form or the to-infinitive. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I want ______ (go). ______ (swim) keeps me in shape. She has the money _____ (buy) it. _____ (see) is to believe. He won the game by_____ (score).
Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I want to go. Swimming keeps me in shape. She has the money to buy it. To see is to believe. He won the game by scoring.