Grain Oil and Specialty Field Crop Production by

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Grain, Oil, and Specialty Field. Crop Production by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High

Grain, Oil, and Specialty Field. Crop Production by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School 1

Competencies: define important terms used in crop production identify major crops grown for grain,

Competencies: define important terms used in crop production identify major crops grown for grain, oil, and special purposes classify field crops according to use and thermo requirements describe how to select field crops, varieties, and seed 2

Competencies: prepare proper seedbeds for grain, oil, and specialty crops plant field crops describe

Competencies: prepare proper seedbeds for grain, oil, and specialty crops plant field crops describe current irrigation practices for field crops to meet their water needs control pests in field crops harvest and store field crops 3

Terms to Know Field Crops Grain Crops Malting Forage Cover Crops Green Manure Crops

Terms to Know Field Crops Grain Crops Malting Forage Cover Crops Green Manure Crops Oilseed Crops 4

Terms to Know Linen Linseed Oil Ginning Seed Pieces Cash Crop Thermo Cereal Crops

Terms to Know Linen Linseed Oil Ginning Seed Pieces Cash Crop Thermo Cereal Crops 5

Terms to Know Seed Legume Crops Root Crops Sugar Crops Tuber Crops Stimulant Crops

Terms to Know Seed Legume Crops Root Crops Sugar Crops Tuber Crops Stimulant Crops Conventional Tillage No-till 6

Term to Know Row Crop Planters Drill Planters Broadcast Planters Irrigation Sprinklers Surface Irrigation

Term to Know Row Crop Planters Drill Planters Broadcast Planters Irrigation Sprinklers Surface Irrigation Mechanical Pest Control 7

Terms to Know Cultural Control Biological Control Genetic Control Chemical Control Threshing 8

Terms to Know Cultural Control Biological Control Genetic Control Chemical Control Threshing 8

History of Crop Production Began about 10, 000 years ago Changed early humans from

History of Crop Production Began about 10, 000 years ago Changed early humans from hunters to farmers Observed what animals were eating Trial and error and thousands of years of selection 9

In the United States Occupies more than 450 million acres Acreage represents about 20%

In the United States Occupies more than 450 million acres Acreage represents about 20% of the U. S. About 2% of American workers are in production agriculture 11% of personal income in U. S. spent on food Helps to maintain balance of trade 10

Major Field Crops in the United States Seven major grain crops in the United

Major Field Crops in the United States Seven major grain crops in the United States Are grasses grown for their edible seeds Major Grain Crops: Corn Wheat Barley Oats Rye Rice Grain Sorghum 11

Corn Most important field crop in the U. S. 35 -40% of total production

Corn Most important field crop in the U. S. 35 -40% of total production from midwest 50% of corn produced in the world Origin in Central America 12

Corn Less than 10% of U. S. production is for human consumption Major classifications:

Corn Less than 10% of U. S. production is for human consumption Major classifications: Dent corn Flint corn Popcorn Sweet corn Flour or soft corn Pod corn 13

Wheat Most important grain crop in the world 2 nd to corn in U.

Wheat Most important grain crop in the world 2 nd to corn in U. S. Primarily for human consumption Ground into flour: bread cakes cereal macaroni/noodles 14

Wheat Types of Wheat: Common Durum Club Poulard Polish Emmer Spelt Classes of Common

Wheat Types of Wheat: Common Durum Club Poulard Polish Emmer Spelt Classes of Common Wheat: Soft red winter Hard red spring Hard red winter White 15

Barley Ranks fifth among grain crops in U. S. Most is used in livestock

Barley Ranks fifth among grain crops in U. S. Most is used in livestock feed Same feed value as corn Production for malting is also important 16

Oats Fourth in acres produced in the United States Value is well documented for

Oats Fourth in acres produced in the United States Value is well documented for livestock: Adding bulk to the diet Adding protein to the diet 5% is made into oatmeal and cookies Used in production of plastics, pesticides, and preservatives Important in paper and brewing industries 17

Rye Least economically important grain crop 25 -35% of rye acreage used for grain

Rye Least economically important grain crop 25 -35% of rye acreage used for grain Remainder used forage: Cover crop Green manure crop Rye grown for grain is used for livestock feed, flour, whiskey & alcohol production 18

Rice Major grain crop grown for food for over half the people in the

Rice Major grain crop grown for food for over half the people in the world Only commercially grown grain crop that can grow and thrive in standing water Types grown in U. S. : Short grain Medium grain Long grain Majority used for human consumption 19

Sorghum In U. S. used primarily for livestock feed About equal to corn in

Sorghum In U. S. used primarily for livestock feed About equal to corn in food value Other uses include: Forage Manufacture of syrup or sugar Making of brooms Third most important U. S. grain crop 20

Sorghum Types of sorghum: Grain Forage Syrup Grass Broomcorn 21

Sorghum Types of sorghum: Grain Forage Syrup Grass Broomcorn 21

Oilseed Crops grown for the production of oil from their seeds Growing in importance

Oilseed Crops grown for the production of oil from their seeds Growing in importance each year Important crops are: Soybeans Peanuts Corn Cottonseed Safflower Flax Sunflower 22

Soybeans 60 million acres in U. S. Average yield 34 bu/acre Gross $11 billion/year

Soybeans 60 million acres in U. S. Average yield 34 bu/acre Gross $11 billion/year Oil and grain products are major uses Meal fed to livestock Also used for hay, pasture, and other forage 100’s of other uses 23

Peanuts Actually a pea and not a nut Grown primarily in the South One

Peanuts Actually a pea and not a nut Grown primarily in the South One ton will yield: 500 lbs. oil 800 lbs. meal 700 lbs. shell Meal used for livestock feed and in human diets Other foods include peanut butter and dry roasted peanuts 24

Safflower Production for oil occurs mainly in California Plants grow 2 to 5 feet

Safflower Production for oil occurs mainly in California Plants grow 2 to 5 feet high with heads resembling Canadian thistles 25 -35 percent oil Used in production of paint and other industrial products Used for cooking oil and low cholesterol diets 25

Flax Originally, the production was for fiber Fibers were used to produce linen Oil

Flax Originally, the production was for fiber Fibers were used to produce linen Oil is called linseed oil Important raw product in many types of paint 100’s of uses in industry Meal is excellent source of protein for animal feeds 26

Sunflowers Production of oil-type important in recent years 90% of production oil-type 49 -53%

Sunflowers Production of oil-type important in recent years 90% of production oil-type 49 -53% oil Meal has 14 -19% protein Meal used for livestock feed Oil used for margarine and cooking oil Oil can substitute for diesel fuel in tractors 27

Specialty Crops Include: Fiber Crops Sugar Crops Stimulant Crops Examples include: Cotton Sugar beets

Specialty Crops Include: Fiber Crops Sugar Crops Stimulant Crops Examples include: Cotton Sugar beets Sugarcane Tobacco 28

Cotton Originated in Central and South America Important crop in South since colonial times

Cotton Originated in Central and South America Important crop in South since colonial times Need warm temperatures and a long growing season Can produce up to three crops per year under irrigation 29

Cotton Over 15 million bales of cotton produced in U. S. per year 9

Cotton Over 15 million bales of cotton produced in U. S. per year 9 million bales used in textile industry, rest is exported Removing seed from cotton is called ginning Seed is processed to remove the oil which contributes to vegetable oil needs Meal is used for animal feed 30

Sugar Beets Accounts for about 35% of the refined sugar produced in the U.

Sugar Beets Accounts for about 35% of the refined sugar produced in the U. S. Produces a thick, fleshy storage root Center of production is the western states and the upper Midwest 31

Sugar Cane Accounts for 65% of the sugar refined in the U. S. Crop

Sugar Cane Accounts for 65% of the sugar refined in the U. S. Crop is a grass grown from sections of stalk called seed pieces Takes about 2 years to reach harvesting stage in Hawaii Takes 7 months until harvest in the southern states Can harvest several times before replanting 32

Tobacco Original North American product used by Native Americans Produced as a cash crop

Tobacco Original North American product used by Native Americans Produced as a cash crop Production dropped in the 1980’s and increased again in the 1990’s Requires large amounts of labor and is adapted to small farming operations Warm temperatures and plenty of rainfall are required for optimum production 33

Classification of Field Crops Three ways of classifying field crops: Use Thermo requirements Life

Classification of Field Crops Three ways of classifying field crops: Use Thermo requirements Life span Classification by use: Cereal crops-grown for their edible seeds Seed legume crops-nitrogen-fixing crops that produce edible seeds Root crops-grown for their thick, fleshy storage roots 34

Classification of Field Crops Forage crops-grown for hay, silage, or pastures for livestock feed

Classification of Field Crops Forage crops-grown for hay, silage, or pastures for livestock feed Sugar crops-grown for their ability to store sugars in their stems or roots Oil crops-produced for the oil content of their seeds Tuber crops-grown for their thickened, underground storage stems Stimulant crops-grown for their ability to stimulate the sense of the user 35

Classification of Field Crops Thermo classifications: Warm season Cool season Warm season crops must

Classification of Field Crops Thermo classifications: Warm season Cool season Warm season crops must have warm temperatures in order to live and grow Cool season crops often need a period of cool weather in order to attain maximum production 36

Classification of Field Crops Classification by life span: Annual Biennial Perennial Factors to consider

Classification of Field Crops Classification by life span: Annual Biennial Perennial Factors to consider for the selection of field crops: 1. Crops that will grow and produce the desired yields under the type of climate available. 2. Crops that are adapted to the type of soil available. 37

Classification of Field Crops 3. Demand on market available for the crop to be

Classification of Field Crops 3. Demand on market available for the crop to be produced. 4. Labor requirements and availability of labor for the crop. 5. Machinery and equipment necessary to grow the crop. 6. Availability of enough land to justify production of the crop. 7. Pest-control problems. 8. Expected yields. 9. Anticipated production costs. 38

Seedbed Preparation Purpose is to provide conditions favorable for germination and growth Eliminating competition

Seedbed Preparation Purpose is to provide conditions favorable for germination and growth Eliminating competition from weeds and crop residues is a consideration 39

Seedbed Preparation Can increase availability of soil nutrients Should not be overworked Fineness of

Seedbed Preparation Can increase availability of soil nutrients Should not be overworked Fineness of seedbed is dependent on size of seed Should contain enough fertility to encourage germination and growth Control and elimination of weeds, insects, and diseases is an important consideration 40

Seedbed Preparation Three categories of tillage preparation: Conventional tillage-land is plowed with a moldboard

Seedbed Preparation Three categories of tillage preparation: Conventional tillage-land is plowed with a moldboard plow Minimum tillage-seedbed is prepared only enough so that the seed can make contact with the soil and germinate No-till-planting seeds directly into the residue of the previous crop 41

Planting Field Crops Three general types of planters: Row crop planters-plant seeds in precise

Planting Field Crops Three general types of planters: Row crop planters-plant seeds in precise rows with even spacing within the rows Drill planters-plant seeds in narrow rows at high population rates Broadcast planters-scatter the seed in a random pattern on top of the 42 seedbed

Planting Field Crops Other considerations include: Date to plant Germination rate of seeds Uniformity

Planting Field Crops Other considerations include: Date to plant Germination rate of seeds Uniformity of seed Weather conditions Insect and disease control problems 43

Meeting Water Needs of Crops Ideally 1/2 of pore space is filled with water

Meeting Water Needs of Crops Ideally 1/2 of pore space is filled with water About 1/2 of the water in the pore spaces are available for plant use Factors affecting water availability include: Type of soil Natural rainfall Water-table levels Prevailing winds 44

Meeting Water Needs of Crops Irrigation may be the answer to obtaining profitable yields

Meeting Water Needs of Crops Irrigation may be the answer to obtaining profitable yields Irrigation has been practiced for over 5, 000 years Egyptians used water from the Nile River for irrigation Chinese and Native Americans used irrigation 45

Meeting Water Needs of Crops Major methods of supplying irrigation water to crops: Sprinklers-spray

Meeting Water Needs of Crops Major methods of supplying irrigation water to crops: Sprinklers-spray water through the air, much like rainfall Surface irrigation-water gets to the crop by gravity, flowing over the surface of the soil or in ditches or furrows Subsurface irrigation-supplies water to the roots of crops underground 46

Pest Control in Field Crops Control of pests in field crops often determines profits

Pest Control in Field Crops Control of pests in field crops often determines profits Pests include: Diseases Weeds Insects Animals Economic losses total billions of dollars each year 47

Pest Control in Field Crops Three main categories of losses: Reduced yields Reduced quality

Pest Control in Field Crops Three main categories of losses: Reduced yields Reduced quality Spoilage Methods of controlling pests in field crops: Mechanical pest control Genetic control Cultural pest control Chemical control Biological pest control 48

Mechanical Pest Control Anything that affects the environment of the pest or the pest

Mechanical Pest Control Anything that affects the environment of the pest or the pest itself Cultivation is the normal mechanical control of weeds Other types include: Pulling or mowing weeds Use of screens, barriers, traps, and electricity 49

Cultural Control Adapting farming practices to control pests Includes: Timing farming operations to eliminate

Cultural Control Adapting farming practices to control pests Includes: Timing farming operations to eliminate pests Rotating crops Planting resistant varieties Planting trap crops that are more attractive to insects than is the primary crop 50

Biological Control Involves the use of predators or diseases as the control mechanisms Examples:

Biological Control Involves the use of predators or diseases as the control mechanisms Examples: Release of sterile male insects Uses of baits and repellents Important that the control be specific to the intended pest 51

Genetic Control Development of varieties of crops that are resistant to pests May involve

Genetic Control Development of varieties of crops that are resistant to pests May involve making the crop less attractive to pest because of: Taste Shape Blooming time 52

Chemical Control Involves the use of pesticides to control pests Excellent management practices must

Chemical Control Involves the use of pesticides to control pests Excellent management practices must be exercised Care in pest identification and selection of the chemical are important Dosage, runoff, and pesticide residues need to be monitored 53

Harvesting and Storing Field Crops Harvesting at proper stage of maturity is a key

Harvesting and Storing Field Crops Harvesting at proper stage of maturity is a key to maximizing profits Culmination of a growing season of work and anticipation of the rewards of a job well done 54

Harvesting and Storing Field Crops Development of mechanical harvesting equipment Primary harvesting machine is

Harvesting and Storing Field Crops Development of mechanical harvesting equipment Primary harvesting machine is the combine which performs the tasks of: Cutting the crop Threshing the crop Separating crop from debris Cleaning the crop 55

Harvesting and Storing Field Crops Threats to quality of stored crops include: Heat Moisture

Harvesting and Storing Field Crops Threats to quality of stored crops include: Heat Moisture Fungi Insects Rodents Production of field crops generates more income for American agriculturists than any other production enterprise 56