- Slides: 16
GOVERNMENT & CIVICS : CONSTITUTION & CITIZENSHIP
What is a constitution and what is its purpose? • Written document that establishes the relationship between a government and its people. • What two things does a constitution do? – It lists the peoples’ rights – It limits the government’s power
SS 8 CG 1 A: Basic Georgia Constitution Structure • Both US and GA constitution include the following: (compare them on page 499 in textbook) – Preamble—A short paragraph that gives reasons for the Constitution – Articles—sections that deals with a specific point • Bills of Rights—A section where individual rights and government limits are written
SS 8 CG 1: Basic Georgia Constitution Structure Article I: Georgia’s Bill of Rights • Individual rights (include all U. S. Bill of Rights amendments plus 18 more that deal with separation of powers/church & state and property rights)
SS 8 CG 1: Basic Georgia Constitution Structure –Government Branch functions • Article 3: (Legislative) -Outlines the structure and function of the two houses of GA’s General Assembly. Explains how bills are passed into laws • Article 5: (Executive) -Sets out the qualifications and terms of office for the governor and lieutenant governor. Explains duties and powers of governor. Lists other elected positions in GA’s executive branch • Article 6: (Judicial) -Outlines GA’s court system. Gives purposes and limits of each court
SS 8 CG 1: Basic Georgia Constitution Structure—Other Articles • The other 8 Articles of the Georgia Constitution include topics such as taxes, voting, election, education system, and amending or making changes to the constitution.
SS 8 CG 1 B: Concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances • Separation of powers—Branches have specific jobs and responsibilities so that no branch becomes too powerful • Checks and Balances—a system of limiting the roles of each branch, and setting checks, or controls, over other branches.
SS 8 CG 1 B: Concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances OUR BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT • Legislative - makes the rules, or laws, that people must obey • Executive - is the head, or leader, of the government that enforces the laws • Judicial - Interprets the laws and decides whether or not people are guilty
SS 8 CG 1 C: Citizenship • If your parents are U. S. citizens or if you were born in the United States, then you are a U. S. citizen. • Naturalized citizens are individuals born in other countries who choose to become American citizens and give up their citizenship from their native country.
SS 8 CG 1 C: How to become a Naturalized citizen 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Must be 18 and entered the US legally Lived in this US for at least 5 years Good moral character Ability to read, write, and speak English Knowledge and understanding of U. S. history and government (Citizenship Test) 6. A belief in the principles of the U. S. Constitution. 7. Taking an oath of allegiance
SS 8 CG 1 C: Rights of Citizens • Citizens are guaranteed all of the protections and rights given by the federal and state constitutions – Bills of Rights
SS 8 CG 1 C: Responsibilities of Citizens • Along with the rights that come with being a citizen of the United States, the state of Georgia, and a particular county and town are certain responsibilities including: ü Upholding the laws of the nation. ü Participation in government ü Running for office if you choose, ü Voting for candidates for office ü Jury Duty ü Defending the nation against its enemies. ü If necessary—join the military during wartime (draft)
SSCG 1 D: Voting Requirements • To register to vote in Georgia, a person must be at least 18 years old and a citizen of the United States. An individual must also be a legal resident of Georgia and the county in which he or she registered.
SS 8 CG 1 D: Elections • In our democratic form of government, citizens vote in elections to elect representatives to political office and decide major questions and issues. Elections must be by secret ballot and must follow rules stated in constitution. • A general election is held in November in at least every even-numbered year. This is when major federal and state officials are selected. Other elections are held as needed to select public officials at all levels of government: national, state, county, or city.
SS 8 CG 1 E: Role of Political Parties • Political parties are organized groups of people who share common ideals – Elect members of their party to government offices. – seek to influence government policies and decisions • Republican party and the Democratic are the two major political parties. – Members of these groups share common beliefs about government’s role in American life and the policies that government should support