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GOOD CITIZENS OR DEVIOUSLY COUNTERPRODUCTIVE? A META-ANALYSIS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE • Chao Miao, Wilkes University, chao. [email protected] edu • Ronald H. Humphrey, Lancaster University, UK r. [email protected] ac. uk • Shanshan Qian, Towson University • [email protected] edu
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Helping others out, volunteering Discretionary— don’t have to do it
New emphasis on EI related behaviors Organ (1988, p. 4) Organ (1997, p. 95) • “OCB represents individual • stated that OCB is behavior that is “performance that discretionary, not directly or supports the social and explicitly recognized by the psychological formal reward system, and environment in which in the aggregate promotes task performance takes the efficient and effective place. ” functioning of the organization. ”
Discussion: What organizational citizenship behaviors have you witnessed at work? • Also, how does organizational citizenship behavior contribute to workplace performance?
OCB and Performance • A meta-analysis has provided compelling evidence that OCB improves both organizational and individual outcomes (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, & Blume, 2009). With regard to organizational performance, OCB improves productivity, efficiency, customer satisfaction, and reduces costs and unit-level turnover.
• Performing citizenship behaviors aids employees in obtaining rewards and higher performance evaluations, and reduces their turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism. With regard to task performance the meta-analysis found a substantial relationship between task performance and citizenship behavior directed towards individuals (corrected correlation of. 47) and towards the organization (corrected correlation of. 54).
Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) also has important effects on organizations. • As defined by Spector and Fox (2002, p. 271), “CWB is behavior intended to hurt the organization or other members of the organization. ” CWB may consist of a variety of different counterproductive behaviors, including physical or verbal aggression against other organizational members, sabotage of equipment or physical facilities, theft, and purposely doing work poorly or slowly (Bennett & Robinson, 2000). • Discussion: What counterproductive behaviors have you witnessed?
Discussion • What counterproductive behaviors have you witnessed?
Two Main Purposes • It is essential to understand whether EI is positively associated with the performance of OCB, and negatively related to CWB, and the overall size of these relationships. • It is vital to know the relative importance of EI as a predictor when examining other personality traits, such as the Big Five, general self-efficacy, and cognitive intelligence.
EI and Empathy • EI scholars also posit that empathy is key to EI and include empathy subscales in their EI measures. Goleman and his colleagues avow that empathy is “the fundamental competence of social awareness” and “the sine qua non of all social effectiveness in working life” (Goleman, Boyatzis, & Mc. Kee, 2002: 50).
EI, Empathy, and Prosocial behavior • Borman and his colleagues (Borman, Penner, Allen, & Motowidlo, 2001) tested dispositional predictors of OCB, including measures of the Big Five, and they found that other-oriented empathy had the highest zero-order correlation with OCB. A considerable body of research has examined empathy’s effects on prosocial behavior, testing what has become called the empathy-altruism hypothesis (Batson, Eklund, Chermok, Hoyt, & Ortiz 2007). The empathyaltruism hypthesis has been confirmed by meta-analytic summaries of the research using both surveys and lab studies (Eisenberg & Miller, 1987). Studies have shown that EI scales predict empathy (Kellett, Humphrey, & Sleeth, 2002; 2006).
EI improves effective helping • EI may also increase OCB because it improves the quality and effectiveness of helping behaviors. Kolb and Boyatzis (1970) classified helpers into 3 categories: effective helpers, ineffective helpers, and nonhelpers. People high on EI might be both more motivated to help and have greater ability to do so because of their keen understanding of human nature.
EI reduces counterproductive work behaviors • EI may reduce CWB in particular because it helps employees cope with the negative feelings and frustrations that normal work problems often create. Regulation of emotions, both with regard to oneself and others, is a key part of EI. As the stressor –emotion model of CWB (Spector & Fox, 2002) depicts, these negative emotions are a key cause of CWB. People high on EI should be able to handle typical problems without undue negative emotions, in contrast, employees low on EI may not be able to handle the stress and act out in counterproductive ways as a result.
The Big Five Model of Personality • • • Neuroticism—Emotional Stability Extraverts—Introverts Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness
Measure of Conscientiousness
IQ vs. EI • How important is IQ to doing organizational citizenship behaviors? • How important is it to counterproductive work behaviors?
Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors • 68 studies • 16, 368 employees • Corrected correlation: . 52
Emotional Intelligence and Counterproductive Work Behavior • 17 Studies • 3, 914 employees • Corrected correlation: -. 34
What about when we included the other variables? • Stream 1 ability EI ranks fifth out of nine predictors in its relative importance in predicting OCB in model 2. • Stream 2 self-reports EI ranks first out of nine predictors in its relative importance in predicting OCB. • Stream 3 mixed competency EI met the criterion of a large relative importance and ranks first out of nine predictors in its relative importance. • Stream 3 mixed competency EI contributed 53. 2% of the explained variance with a R 2 contribution of. 33.
Emotional Intelligence and CWB Relative Importance • Streams 1, 2, 3 EI ranked sixth, first, and first out of nine predictors in its relative importance respectively.