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Goat Nutrition “Small Ruminants” Doug Hogan CHS Nutrition Rapid City
CHS nutrition Footprint 14 Manufacturing Feed Plants 1 Premix Plant 2 Liquid Feed Plants Employ Approx. 270 people
Goats for Fiber • A goat enterprise offers producers the choice of selling fiber as well as meat. The two most common fibers produced are mohair and cashmere. Angora goats produce mohair. Cashmere is a type of goat, not a breed. Cashmere fiber can be clipped from almost any goat other than Angora. • As of January 2013, the United States had 136, 000 head of Angora goats. • Mohair production in the United States during 2012 was 770, 000 pounds. A total of 136, 000 goats and kids were clipped. • Most of the U. S. mohair originates from Texas, followed by Arizona and New Mexico.
Goats for Dairy • • Dairy goat milk and goat cheese continue to see slow, steady growth trends as consumers are becoming more aware of the higher protein and lower cholesterol levels found in the products. Goat milk is regarded as a natural source of nutrients, an alternative to cow's milk and easy to digest. Dairy goat producers rely on direct market sales for milk and cheese products. Farmers' markets and Internet sales also offer market outlets. Some producers sell directly to retail stores and restaurants. In the United States, dairy goats are found in every state. According to USDA (2009), milk goats were raised on 30, 000 farms in 2007. As of January 1, 2013, the United States had 360, 000 milk goats, unchanged from the previous year. The largest number of milk goats are found in Wisconsin (46, 000 head) and California (40, 500 head), followed by Iowa (29, 000 head), Texas (18, 000 head) and Minnesota (13, 500 head). During 2012, the number of milk goats increased in Wisconsin and Minnesota but declined in the other three states.
Goats for Meat • Meat goats are regarded as an affordable livestock enterprise and are in demand Meat goats totaled 2. 3 million head in January 2013 • Texas leads the nation in meat goat production with about 40 percent of all meat goat inventory, followed by Tennessee. Oklahoma, California and Missouri are also significant producers of meat goats.
Other Purposes for Raising Goats • Weed & Brush Control • Breeding Stock • Pets • Dairy • Meat
Goat Behavior & Reproduction • Goats are more intelligent, independent and smart than sheep. They can adopt themselves with the environment more easily than sheep. Sheep tend to run if spooked or approached and they are most comfortable with their flock. They like to graze on grass. On the other hand, goats like to graze on almost everything they can reach and find edible (leaves, plants, twigs etc. ). • Goats and sheep are completely different species. Goats have 60 chromosomes, but sheep have 54 chromosomes. For producing fertile offspring, they can’t interbreed. Gestation in goats and sheep is 150 days. • Usually an adult female goat is called doe or nanny, an adult male goat is called a billy or buck, female goats under 1 year of age are called doeling, goats who have passed their first year of age are called yearling and young goats are called kids. On the other hand, an adult female sheep is called a ewe, an adult male sheep is called a ram and young sheep are called lambs.
Ruminant Nutrition • Four Stomachs
Goats are not Sheep! Goats are born with no fat. Goats fat is inside out. Sheep fat is outside. Goats are closer to cows vs. sheep.
What are the 5 Major Nutrients Water • Most important nutrient • Goats Require 1 to 4 gallons per day Protein • Help animal create muscle, milk, enzymes, & more Energy • Carbohydrates & fats give animals energy Minerals • Basic foundation for nutrition. Needed for strong bones, heart & nerves to work, and body fluid balance Vitamins • Include vitamin A, C, D, E, K and B vitamins. These are needed for strong bones, vision, growth, & milk production
Nutrition & Health • Goats consume 3 -4 % of there bodyweight. • Water is the key nutritional element. goats require 1 to 4 gallons per day • Water sampling can be beneficial to your feeding program. If you have poor quality water, you should feed Ultra. Min 12 -6 (chelated minerals contain a high level of copper, zinc and manganese which overcome antagonistic effects of sulfates in water. )
Nutrition & Health • Copper in a goat’s diet is important. When you talk about sheep you have a narrow range or band between of required levels of copper. • Goats need copper 20 -30 ppm • Ultra. Min 12 -6 Mineral will meet that requirement!
The nutrition/supplement many of our goat growers use is our Smart. Lic AP 18 which isn’t the best choice, but it works. We do have a Goat Tub 20 with higher protein and the level of copper that is recommended for goats.
Protein • • • Help animal create muscle, milk, and enzymes. Protein vary with age of goats growing or nursing! Kids 16% fed at a rate of ½ pound per head per day. Weaning to 6 months old , 16% at 1 pound per head per day. 6 months to 10 months old go to a 14% protein feed at 1 to 1 ½ pond per head per day. Pregnant does 12% protein feed at ¾ to 1 pound per head per day.
Proteins • Nursing does feed 16% protein at ½ to ¾ pound per head per day, increase if needed, and you can add some alfalfa to the feeding program. • Herd Sires, if you have a poor forage you may want to feed a 16%supplement. 1 pound per head per day. 2 -5 weeks Prior to breeding feed 1 to 2 pounds p/h/p/day.
Management • Use The Proper Feed Product For The Animal and Life Stage Start slow and be consistent with your feeding times. • Weigh the Feed & Hay • Make Changes Slowly – Changing Hays or Grains – Maximum ¼ lb increase in grain per day • Keep Feed & Water Fresh • Free Choice Hay • Never Free Choice Supplements
Management Tips • • Feed Twice A Day Never Run Out Of Water Shade Dust Control Bedding Diamond V Yeast Salt Mineral (Free Choice)
How to Read a Feed Tag • Look for the name of the feed • Is it for the right kind of animal? • Medicated? • Feeding Directions • Product Form
Goat Mineral Tag
Animals will go off of feed! • Animals will go off feed for many reasons. The feed is not the sole reason animals go off feed. Good Management will reduce and minimize this obstacle. • Bloat or acidosis will cause animals to go off feed and leading causes for this are. Irregular feedings, change in feed, Feeder ran out and was recently refilled animals overeat and then go off feed. • No water, frozen, hot, dirty, stress, or sick. • Animals don’t reach desired performance, bloat, stress washing, heat, cold, or no preventative health program has been implemented! • Vitamins