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GMO’s • Genetically modified organisms or • Transgenic Organisms - organisms that have foreign DNA (genes) introduced into them • Used to increase survival rates • Introducing foreign DNA into bacteria, plants and animals • Used in research and pharmaceuticals
Genetic Engineering • Selects useful traits from a range of variation. • Artificial selection and breeding to acquire beneficial traits. • Breeding cattle, dogs, corn. • Now molecular biologists can introduce genes into all kinds of organisms
• Molecular Biologists, know that genes are chains of nucleotides • With this knowledge, they are able to move genes around and cut and paste pieces of DNA from different organisms.
Plasmid DNA + gene + Gene you are interested in How might we cut open the plasmid to get the gene in? Plasmid DNA + gene + Bacterial cell + your plasmid! What happens every time the bacterial cell divides and replicates its own DNA?
Recombinant DNA • Recombinant DNA is any DNA molecule consisting of two or more DNA segments that are not normally found together in nature. Sometimes called designer genes. • Joins together pieces of DNA in combinations that benefit scientists.
• DNAse and RNAse are enzymes that actually cut the bonds between nucleotides in DNA or RNA. • Restriction enzymes are special DNAses that cut DNA at specific locations. • For instance the Eco. RI binds to and cuts DNA wherever it finds the sequence GAATTC. • This results in many fragments with ends that can be identified and are complimentary (sticky).
• DNA ligase is an enzyme that is used to link together separate pieces of DNA into one continuous strand. • For example, to make the hormone insulin, researchers inserted a sequence coding for human insulin next to the operator and the promoter for β -galactosidase from E. coli. • When the bacteria was exposed to lactose, the bacteria produced insulin
Rat Insulin Gene Example
Green Fluorescent Protein • Found in one species of jelly fish (Aequorea victoria) • GFP started to be used in biology in the 1990 s • Nobel Prize in 2008! • Great website: http: //www. conncoll. edu/ccac ad/zimmer/GFP-ww/GFP 1. htm
So what can we use GFP for? • “Tag” specific cells and/or specific proteins we are interested in looking at
Interesting Transgenic Animals!
Emerald Sea Slug • Naturally-occuring! • Sequence identical to an algal photosynthetic gene in its genome o Gene somehow integrated into the slug’s DNA!
Spider Goat • Spider silk o Stronger than steel! o Really flexible • Goats have spider silk gene inserted into their DNA • Silk is harvested from the goat’s _____
Super Muscle Trout • Fish have 20 -25% more muscle growth • Gene inserted that makes a protein that inhibits another protein that SLOWS muscle growth
Brainbow Mouse • Randomly expressing different ratios of red, green, and blue derivatives of GFP
Gene therapy • Use genes to try to treat a disease o Protein function has somehow been changed o Gene therapy tries to fix that! • Still a very risky procedure!