- Slides: 18
Glycolysis & Fermentation Chapter 6
What is ATP? �Analogy with the coins and the bending machine �How does it function like a rechargeable battery?
RECHARGING ATP �Occurs in the Mitochondria �How do we obtain the energy from GLUCOSE to make ATP? � 2 types of complex reactions →Aerobic (Involves oxygen) →Anaerobic (Does not involve oxygen)
GLYCOLYSIS �Breakdown of glucose �Happens in the cytoplasm of the cell �Doesn’t require oxygen �Process of going from Glucose to Pyruvic Acid and producing 2 ATP Glucose → Pyruvic Acid + 2 ATP
GLYCOLYSIS Glucose → Pyruvic Acid + 2 ATP ANAEROBIC PATHWAY FERMENTATION CELLULAR RESPIRATI
FERMENTATION : ANAEROBIC � No oxygen present � Process through which yeast cells obtain energy from glucose � Limited to microscopic organisms, unicellular organisms � Glucose breaks down into 2 three-carbon molecules called pyruvate � Pyruvate can then be broken down in two different pathways (identified by their waste products) →Alcoholic Fermentation →Lactic Acid Fermentation
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION C 6 H 12 O 6 → 2 ATP + 2 C 2 H 5 OH + 2 CO 2 Glucose Energy Carbon Ethanol Dioxide
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION 6 Carbon Molecule 3 Carbon → Molecule 2 Carbon → Molecule
FERMENTATION �Goal of fermentation: Produce ATP �What are the waste products in alcoholic fermentation? _____ �How is the waste product of one organism useful to another?
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION �Example 1 : Wine (yeast ferments the sugar in grape juice to make ethanol & CO 2) �Example 2 : Yeast is used to make bread, the CO 2 is what forms bubbles in the dough making it rise
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION C 6 H 12 O 6 → 2 Lactic Acid + 2 ATP �Fermentation can also be carried out by bacteria �Lactic acid fermentation is a process in which bacteria converts glucose to lactic acid �Example 1: Make products such as butter, yogurt and cheese. �Example 2: Lactic acid buildup in muscles
CELLULAR RESPIRATION �Oxygen is essential to human life �Fermentation is inefficient �Glucose is broken down to produce ATP with the help of oxygen = AEROBIC �Breathing provides oxygen to the cells that use it to break down Glucose and make ATP
WHERE DOES CELLULAR RESPIRATION TAKE PLACE? Enzymes responsible for controlling cellular respiration are part of the inner membrane _________ (Responsible for energy generation)
CELLULAR RESPIRATION �Analogy with a fireplace ØMitochondria = Fireplace ØGlucose = Log ØOxygen = Needed to burn log ØCarbon Dioxide & Water = Released ØATP = Released as heat & light
CELLULAR RESPIRATION �Breaks down glucose to put energy in the form of ATP �Respiration: breaking down 1 glucose molecules produces 38 ATP molecules �How many released in fermentation? ___ �We recover 40% of energy of the glucose as ATP the rest is released as heat.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 → 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 + 38 ATP + HEAT