What is Globalization? Global industrialism or globalization is a process of forging international political, economic, religious, and socio -cultural interconnections 7 -11 Beijing KFC Kuwait
“The best definition of globalization” Princess Diana's death An English princess with an Egyptian boyfriend crashes in a French tunnel, driving a German car with a Dutch engine, driven by a Belgian who was drunk on Scottish whisky, followed closely by Italian Paparazzi, on Japanese motorcycles; treated by an American doctor, using Brazilian medicines. This is sent to you by an American, using Bill Gates's technology, and you're probably reading this on your computer, that uses Taiwanese chips, and a Korean monitor, assembled by Bangladeshi workers in a Singapore plant, transported by Indian lorry-drivers, hijacked by Indonesians, unloaded by Sicilian longshoremen, and trucked to you by Mexican illegals. . . (from the web)
What kinds of things cross international borders? • Trade – goods and services. – You can buy a TV from China, car from Japan, clothes from Indonesia or Italy. – You can hire someone from India to write software or answer your telephone • Capital – money, investment – You can put your savings into a bank in Zurich. – You can buy stock in SONY, a Japanese company • People – immigrants, refugees, tourists – Immigrants come to Calgary from Asia, Africa, S. America, Europe – You can easily travel to Europe, Asia, S. America • Communication – You can easily call or email people around the world • Culture (art, music, cuisine) – You can hear music from Brazil, South Africa, India – Nearby restaurants: Chinese, Thai, Ethiopian, Indian • Ideas
Marginal Product Revenue Theory Equilibrium is achieved where supply and demand meet in a competitive market. The business world does not like equilibrium because it limits profits. The more unique the offering the more the company can charge in excess of their costs. Call Center India
Marginal Product Revenue Theory The Result: business will always seek new markets and new products to offer.
When did Globalization begin? Obsidian Trade in the Neolithic (6000 -3000 BC) Economic globalization is as old as history, a reflection of the human drive to seek new horizons.
The Silk Road: a series of trade routes 8, 000 km long connecting China, Asia Minor and The Mediterranean. Parts were opened up about 5000 BC. Connections between China and Europe established with Alexander the Great c. 330 BC It was Marco Polo and Christopher Columbus’s occupation The first era of globalization (in the sense that it encompassed the globe) began during the 19 th century with the rapid growth of international trade between the European imperial powers Marco Polo 1271 -1295
This process was severely interrupted from World War I through the depression of the 1930 s and World War II until it restarted again, but slowly, in the 1950 s. The pace has picked up in recent decades, thanks to several driving forces: 1. improvements in information technology 2. Trade liberalization 3. capital flows 4. Cheap travel 5. Less rigorous immigration policies 6. Marketing
Cost of a 3 -Minute Telephone Call, New York to London (Constant 1990, U. S. $) $0. 30
The Global Village We live in a world in which all regions are in contact with one another through the mass media, instantaneous communication, intercontinental travel, and highly integrated economic and political networks. And it is changing cultures Mobile phone tower Tanzania
Is Globalization Good or Bad? a banner the protestors carried in front of the IMF building in Washington April 2000 read: "worldwide coalition against globalization". Mc. Donald’s has become a symbol of globalization
Globalization’s impact has, generally, been viewed pessimistically
For large parts of Africa, about 200 million people live, on less than $1 a day. Is Globalization the cause or the cure? (Photo: STR / AFP-Getty Images
Cons Increased environmental damage increased poverty, inequality, injustice erosion of traditional culture Corporations are motivated by profit and have little concern for people economic globalization developments feed into ethnic, religious, and factional tensions that lead to wars and help breed terrorism Terrorists now globally interconnected and empowered with knowledge, create a whole new category of warfare based, in part, on the disruption of the interconnections which are both created by and necessary for globalization Corporations shape political policy of countries e. g. over fishing
Pros increases economic prosperity and opportunity higher degrees of political and economic freedom in the form of democracy Improved standard of living – reduction in poverty Improved gender relations Increased life-span
Globalization Issues Poverty: Enhanced or Diminished? Child Labor: Increased or Reduced? Women: Harmed of Helped? Democracy at Bay? Culture Imperiled or Enriched? Wages and Labor Standards at Stake? Environment in Peril? Corporations: Predatory or Beneficial?
Global Feminization of the Workforce Globalization of the last two decades has led to increasing participation of women in the workforce Reasons declining male participation labour deregulation need for non-skilled temporary/part time workers Rising divorce rates Lower fertility rates Infant formula Periodic economic downturns Rising cost of living Globalization – lower wages Woman working in textile Mill Slovakia
Impact on Women’s Status Growing importance of women’s contribution to household economy Eroded male authority - have gained more negotiating power in the household women less dependent on men’s wages leads to greater freedom women redefine their domestic role and challenge the myth of male breadwinner but adds a burden to women’s household roles If they work but are still dependent on the primary male wage earner they may be seen as supplementary wage earners Most women seen this way in workplace where they are confined to poorly paid unstable jobs fish processing plant Morocco
Cultures in Contact Cultural diffusion –the spreading of a cultural trait from one society to another, may not involve contact Acculturation – cultural diffusion where a subordinate culture adopts many of the cultural traits of the more powerful culture due to continuous contact Cultural imperialism – active promotion of one’s cultural system over another Cultural hybridization – the blending of global and local forces to form a new culture Cultural homogenization – the obliteration of individual cultural differences to form one uniform global culture Cultural nationalism (ethnonationalism) – the process of protecting and defending a certain cultural system against dilution or offensive cultural expression while at the same time actively promoting the indigenous culture
Globalization: the paradox creates economic conditions attractive to many peoples seeking a better life Dennis Okelo, left, saved enough money to open a village grocery store in Uganda after farming cotton and selling it to Dunavant Enterprises. contributes to undermining of local cultures and to the breakdown of local societies
There are two main theses concerning the relation between globalization and culture: The cultural homogenization thesis holds that Western domination of global mass culture threatens to wash away distinct national cultures. The hybridization thesis focuses on how local culture shapes globalizaing forces to produce new versions of the local culture to retain a cultural identity.
Global Culture: Homogenization Technology (Internet, TV, cell phones etc. ) is sweeping away cultural boundaries creating the possibility and even the likelihood of a global culture. Global entertainment companies shape the perceptions, values, and dreams of people, everywhere. This spread of values, norms, and culture tends to promote Western ideals of capitalism and consumerism. Resulting in the disappearance of local cultures, traditions, and identities replaced by a single commodity/ single identity world – the Westernization of culture Ladies only line Saudi Arabia
Asymmetry in Power Relations and Flows Coca-colonization: Coke, Mc. Donald’s, Levi’s, MTV, Disney, computer games, American (or American style) TV shows, look-alike shopping malls with look-alike goods the meaning of good, appropriate, success changes Banana Republicanization Move from the dominant to the weaker Big Bird does China like to teach the world to sing
Globalism - a euphemism for western cultural imperialism? Russia Israel Japan India
Global Culture as a Source of Universality Globalization is assumed to erase differences among human societies and create a universal culture in which particular characteristics of national and local cultures are no longer relevant.
On the main street of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, © Dick Waghorne 250 million Chinese have learned English as a second language Culture becomes more homogeneous - Not in the sense that all cultures are incorporated equally, but biased towards American culture and those presented in English
Global Capitalist Monoculture Incorporation of all national cultures into the global capitalist economic system is creating a universal culture of capitalism. Penetration of multinational companies into national cultures creates not only a uniform process of production and its associated forms of deregulation, but uniformity of consumer tastes, choices and habits. Tokyo
Standardization The overwhelming dominance of multinational companies in the production of cultural goods creates a “convergence effect”. From clothes to food to music to film and television to architecture, we encounter similar styles, brands and tastes anywhere in the world.
Will local cultures inevitably fall victim to this global consumer culture? Will English eradicate all other languages? Will consumer values overwhelm peoples’ sense of community and social solidarity? Will a common culture lead the way to greater shared values and political unity? Or will cultures select elements to incorporate Korea
Shortcomings of “Globalization as a Source of Universality argument” It reduces culture to material goods and consumption patterns It underestimates the persistence of national and other local cultures It assumes the dominance of global forces It fails to understand the complex relationship between global and local forces. Globalization and its associated cultural forms are constantly reinterpreted and reproduced in the process, finally giving way to new hybrid social, economic and cultural forms.
A 2005 UNESCO report showed that cultural exchange is becoming mutual. In 2002, China was the third largest exporter of cultural goods, after the UK and US. Between 1994 and 2002, both North America's and the European Union's shares of cultural exports declined, while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America. Jackie Chan 1993
Global Culture? Identity has intense emotional ties Cultural attachment is bound in tradition Mass marketing & pop culture is no threat! No common pool of memories No common global way of thinking Blurs boundaries Thailand
Glocalization globalization + localization Enaotai Island, West PNG
Hybridization Hybridization: mix and match from different sources, old & new, local and global - music, popular culture, restaurants, home decoration Hybrids help negotiate change and continuity while helping individuals to establish identity and difference in local structures, social hierarchies Hybridity involves integration of the global into the practice of local life strategies
first introduced by Methodist missionaries early 1900 s the islanders have transformed the game into an outlet for tribal rivalry, mock warfare, community interchange, and an afternoon of entertainment an intervillage competition involving political reputation-building among leaders, eroticized dancing and chanting, and wild entertainment. Trobriand cricket players still bat, bowl, score runs, field, and make outs. The sides, however, are no longer 11 players plus a reserve but are made up from all the men of the competing villages. And average 60 players or more, the main rule being that the sides must be roughly equal Each team brings its own "umpire" who overtly declares outs and keeps his own side under control while secretly performing war magic against the opposition. The main purpose is not to win by scoring but to put on a fine display. Chanting and dancing are a major part of the repertoire of each cricket Games end with an exchange of yams and betelnut between the two sides, climaxing the politics underlying the event.
Elements of Hybridization Interaction between the local and the global Even though global economic and political forces enter into every corner of the world, local cultures reinterpret these forces and create local forms of global forces to produce complex hybrid forms of culture.
Food provides an good example of hybridization Mexican food is hybridized in the U. S. to create Mexican-American food. Along with Italian-American, Chinese-American, and other hybridized cuisines These new combinations may be unrecognizable and even unpalatable in the originating society. But they are highly appreciated in the hybridizing society by both the immigrant groups that seek to assert their local identity and the dominant culture
When Mexican food goes to Spain, it becomes Mexican-Spanish food, different from both Mexican. American and its Mexican parent. Thus, although the local may reassert itself, it is inevitably changed by the new contexts in which it arises. no beef burger in India A Russian/Uzbek drinking Coke from a traditional Uzbek tea cup - Coca-Colonization?
Mc. Donaldization “ the process by which a society takes on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant” (1) efficiency: ”fast”, method of production scientifically proven (2) predictability: ”a world of no surprise” – standard menu, taste, décor, service (3) calculability: quantity rather than quality (4) Control: standardized employees, non-human technology
Mc. Donald’s /Hong Kong (1) Standardization: food, interior design, layout etc. (2) Initially presented itself as uncompromising American food - no Chinese name at first - transliteration later - no Chinese food (3) Standard of cleanliness: clean washrooms in restaurants (4) Customer discipline: line up for food (5) Idea of a regular meal: (a) exotic to ordinary; (b) snacks versus meals [customers: middle-class, like exotic American culture all ages, all social classes, look for a simple meal]
Local? (1) Resistance of Mc. Donald’s? Involve in community activities – hard to attack (2) Local choice of food: fish burger and plain hamburgers rather than Big Mac as favorite, other local favorites e. g. shogan burger, chicken wings … (3) Consumer discipline: service w/ a smile, busing own tables, hovering, napkin wars (4) Fast food restaurant? US: customers stay no more than 20 minutes on average; HK: study room for high school students, gathering place for senior people
Shortcomings of “Global Culture as a source of Hybridization” argument It ignores the inherent power structures that exist in human societies and assumes that people happily mix and voluntarily create new identities. It fails to acknowledge the influence of dominant economic and political forces. It fails to recognize that hybridization takes place in urban settings and many parts of the world is excluded from this process.
Elements of Conflict Persistence of national and ethnic identities: Since the mid 1980 s, there is a gradual increase in nationalist movements and ethnic conflicts. As global forces penetrate into national and local cultures, individuals turn inward and redefine their ethnic and local identities as a reaction to globalization. Resistance to global economy: As the global economy diminishes the autonomy of local economies, groups develop strategies to counter global economic forces. Growing resistance to economic globalization both in industrialized and industrializing countries proves that global capitalism is far from being a unifying force.
Global Culture as a Source of Conflict Jihad Versus Mc. World Global Culture would be defined by the conflict between the universalizing force of capitalism and the particular force of local cultures. (Benjamin Barber) This argument assumes that the gradual Westernization of the world will create strong reactionary movements in local cultures.
In August 1999, Jose Bove was arrested for ransacking a Mc. Donald’s restaurant in Millau, France He was seen as a hero fighting against the pollution of French culture by the Big Mac Fear of an impending Mc. World and the globalization it represents has unleashed an increasingly strong backlash against the possibility of cultural homogenization.
Ethnic Trends - Ethnonationalism • People don’t think government cares about individuals • secessionist developments • Ethnonationalism as a reaction to global processes (Québécois, Scots) • Arose in European-colonized areas, in eastern Europe after the collapse of the Soviet Union • Ethnic group is a refuge from globalization
What does indigenous mean? UN definition ‘Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them, and by conquest, settlement or other means, reduced them to a nondominant or colonial situation. also includes isolated or marginal populations not colonized or conquered also the idea that they are placed under the state structure which incorporates mainly the national, social and cultural characteristics of the dominant society.
Indigenous Groups and Government who is indigenous is decided by government ministers national governments have different criteria because indigenous groups may be able to claim state benefits By such means governments are able to keep control over the character and size of their indigenous populations In Canada the federal Indian Act. defines an Indian as "a person who, … is registered as an Indian or is entitled to be registered as an Indian. " Persons registered under the Indian Act are referred to as Registered Indian Status. To be eligible to receive benefits under the Indian Act, individuals must be registered in the Indian Register, which is maintained by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND).
In USA you have to be registered which means you have to be able to trace your relationship to an ancestor who was registered in 1906 indigenous peoples themselves often reject these state definitions and emphasize culture and self identification and distinctiveness RAIN-IN-THE-FACE Sioux Frank Fiske c. 1900
Populations 300 million indigenous people about half of the countries in the world have an indigenous population who do not Have the right to self determination indigenous peoples are generally a demographic minority Native Americans 1. 5% of Canadian population Australian aborigines less than 2% of the population USA native Americans about. 5% Sweden less than. 1%
Globalization and Bands • Fourth world societies • Violent changes – Ethnocide – Genocide • Ethnographic examples: – Ju/’hoansi in Namibia and Botswana – Mbuti Pygmies – Siriono of Bolivia (500)
Globalization and Tribes • North American horticulturists – Effects of contact – Forced relocation • Manifest Destiny • Trail of Tears • South American horticulturists – Yanomamö • Pastoralists – Bedouins – Qashqa’i pastoralists Iran
The Yanomami, had little contact with the rest of Brazil until the arrival of the first garimpciros (gold miners) in the 1970 s. By 1987 an estimated 80, 000 miners had flocked to the area, polluting rivers and spreading malaria. Decimated by disease, the number of Yanomamis living in Brazil (many also live in Venezuela) fell from 20, 000 to about 8, 000 in just 20 years. In Aug 1993 23 Yanomami Indians were massacred by goldminers. . The dead included men, women and children who were decapitated with machetes In the words of Yanomami representative "What we do not want are the mining companies, which destroy the forest, and the garimpciros, who bring so many diseases. These whites must respect our Yanomami land. The garimpciros bring guns, alcohol, prostitution, and destroy nature wherever they go. The machines spill oil into the rivers and kill the life existing in them and the people and animals who depend on them. For us, this is not progress. "
Chiefdoms, Resistance, Preservation • Chiefdoms – Hawaiian Islands • Resistance – Native Americans – Melanesia and New Guinea – Hawaiian Religion • Preservation
Relation to Land contains their history and sense of identity and it ensures their economic viability as an independent people land is often the seat of indigenous peoples spirituality and has a sacred quality generally absent from Western thinking Ayers Rock/ Uluru, the world's largest monolith and an Aboriginal sacred site located in the Kata Tjuta National Park, which is owned and run by the local Aboriginals. The Australian government handed ownership of the land back to the Aboriginals some years ago.
land is often revered and respected and its inalienability is reflected in indigenous philosophy land is seen as a living entity which can neither be claimed for oneself or subjugated unlike Westerners who see land as something that can be controlled, subdivided, and owned. Buffalo Hunt under the White Wolf Skin: An Indian Strategem on the Level Prairies After George Catlin, undated Across the Continent: "Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way" Frances F. Palmer, 1868
This spiritual rapport with the land is at odds with the prevailing materialist notions of Western society natural resources that are left untouched by indigenous peoples are often considered wasted and are exploited economic activities which do not extract the greatest commercial benefits are judged inefficient and primitive Terra nullius (no man’s land) As a consequence the way of life of indigenous peoples, is threatened by this attitude of cultural superiority and materialism. The struggle in the last two decades has centred on land their culture.
Situation of Indigenous Peoples less access to medical care since live mostly in rural areas more likely to be unemployed than the majority paid less than comparable workers and generally in lower paid manual jobs governments in most countries with an indigenous population, have created special agencies for their welfare more often than not these bodies serve as mechanisms of control over indigenous minorities and thereby compound the discrimination talking place elsewhere 1990, the Supreme Court held that Oregon could deny unemployment compensation to two Native Americans dismissed from their jobs for using peyote as part of tribal religious rituals under the state’s narcotics laws
receive less opportunities for schooling basic education is often hampered by an absence of any lingua franca --- in Brazil 120 different languages education is usually in the dominant language locations means that education is inaccessible, especially if nomadic where formal education is available it is often antagonistic to the traditions of indigenous people It does not impart indigenous culture and few efforts are made to accommodate to the needs of indigenous communities
education is often seen as a means of gaining control of indigenous peoples and subverting their culture Missionaries, teachers and governments have recognized that the way to civilise their indigenous communities was to take hold of the children before their parents could teach them the tribal way of life. Indigenous cultures often thought to be inferior and needed to be bred out of them
Assimilation or partial assimilation of indigenous peoples has led to despair at the loss of traditional social cohesion This, coupled with disillusion over limited opportunities offered by the wider economy has created serious problems among indigenous communities violent and accidental deaths and high suicide rates alcoholism and prostitution
The Issues 1. Self-determination tied in with all aspects of life - political, economic, social, and cultural-how people choose to live seeking to assert their political voice along with their economic, cultural and social perpetuation and development the most problematic topic Questions the legitimacy of the settler regimes the establishment of Nunavut may be an indicator of change April 1 1999
2. Intellectual property rights for medicines developed from plants and traditional medical practices of indigenous peoples Until recently in many cases little or no compensation has been given to the tribe which had preserved and actually discovered the medicine. In late 2000, the World Intellectual Property Organization established the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore to address both policy and practical links between the Intellectual Property system and the concerns of practitioners and custodians of traditional knowledge.
3. Control over the exploitation of natural resources located on the traditional indigenous lands. At present these resources are usually claimed by the settler society which gets any fees or profits from exploitation with little regard to the needs or desires of the indigenous peoples The coal-fired Navajo Generating Station near Page, Arizona provides electrical power to customers in Arizona, Necada and California. The ownership is: U. S. Bureau of Reclamation 24. 3% SRP 21. 7% LA Dept. of Water & Power 21. 2% Arizona Public Service Company 14. 0%, Nevada Power 11. 3% Tucson Electric Power 7. 5%
4. Preservation of cultural traditions and languages a high priority for many indigenous peoples since Language is the most efficient means of transmitting a culture and identity is most closely associated with language Most majority societies have been extremely reluctant to allow the use of indigenous languages in formal governmental activities. languages spoken by a minority of people in the nation are often held in low esteem, causing its speakers to avoid using it or passing it on to their children Trinidad Pacaya Inuma, one of the remaining 150 fluent speakers of Iquito (Peru).
Whale Hunting Among the Makah Place: Neah Bay, on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State May 17, 1999 - 1 st Gray Whale Killed in 75 years by Indigenous Whale Hunters Media Coverage Explosion Debates upon two recurrent Themes: Indigenous Rights and Environmental Impacts of Whaling Makah Whale Hunter Curtis (1915) Makah buthcer a whale (c. 1905 -10) Washington State Historical Soc.
The Whale Debate 1. 2. 3. What were the Makah trying to protect by returning to whale hunting? What were environmental groups who opposed the Makah whale hunting trying to protect? Should the tradition of whaling should be continued?
5. Compensation for theft of land property by the settler societies. Includes return of artefacts now in museums also return of skeletons and the right to bury them according to tradition 9000 -yr-old Kennewick Man found near Kennewick Washington July, 1996. Under the Native Am. Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, 5 Native American groups (the Nez Perce, Umatilla, Yakama, Wannapum, Colville) claimed the remains as theirs, to be buried by traditional means. Feb 2004 US Court of Appeals rejects claims The totem pole from Star House, Massett village. Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), Canada. Now at the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford
local indigenous peoples want development that address their needs, that are inclusive of their cultural values, that respect their collective identities, and that provide sustainable development for their communities. “Development with Identity”. Human development is first and foremost about allowing people to lead the kind of life they choose—and providing them with the tools and opportunities to make those choices
The politicization of horticulturalists living in the rain forests of Eastern Brazil. culture Mid 1970 s Terrence Turner The Kayapo discovered 700 of 800 of one group had died of disease. total pop: 4, 000 A state organization controlled their trade and communication with the outside, and embezzled their cash from the nut crop The Kayapo felt dependent and in a situation over which they had no control
Missionaries provided medicine in exchange for the Kayapo's adopting western clothes, building their village along a street, and suppressing their ceremonials
The anthropologist proceeds as if what is being studied is 'a culture'. In the process, what people had hitherto experienced as an embedded way of life becomes objectified and verbalized - invented - as 'culture'. The Kayapo did not see it like that: it was just the way they did things Kayapo chief wearing a feather headdress which establishes his rank and smoking natural tobacco in a traditional ironwood pipe They did not have a concept through which to objectify and label their everyday life as a 'culture'.
they needed such a A Kayapo chief wears the traditional botoque through his lower lip. The plate is made out of balsa wood, and is a sign of courage meant to frighten the enemy. concept to deal with their situation: to give them an identity and distinguish themselves as a 'culture' on a par with other indigenous people and vis-à-vis the dominant national society in an multiethnic state system.
The Kayapo realized that what missionaries and state administrators used as justification for subordination and exploitation, another set of Westerners valued highly. 'Culture', which had Young Kayapo girls painted with Jemipapo, a black paint which is made from Jemipapo fruit crushed and mixed with fish oil. seemed an impediment, now appeared as a resource to negotiate their co-existence with the dominant society
After a Disappearing World documentary was made, the Kayapo sought further documentaries so as to reach the sympathetic elements in the west. In 1989 the Kayapó protested a government proposal to build hydroelectric dams along the Xingu River which would have flooded much of their territory When they arranged to meet the Brazilian government to oppose the dam, they choreographed themselves for the western media in order to gain support of the western audience and add pressure on the government. Their appeal aroused worldwide support and the project was shelved.
Gone were the shorts, T-shirts and haircuts that had appeased the missionaries; with men's bare chests, body ornament and long ritual dances, the Kayapo performed their 'culture' as a strategy in their increasingly confident opposition to the state. by the 1990 s the Kayapo had obtained videos, radios, pharmacies, vehicles, drivers and mechanics, an aeroplane to patrol their land, and even their own missionaries.
Kayapo had learnt to objectify their everyday life as 'culture' (in the old sense) and use it as a resource in negotiations with government and international agencies. Kayapo politicians seem to have been fully aware of the constructedness of 'culture' They presented themselves as a homogeneous and bounded group They defined 'culture' for themselves and used it to set the terms of their relations with the 'outside world'
In a history spanning forty years, missionaries, government officials, the Kayapo, anthropologists, international agencies and non government agencies had all competed for the power to define a key concept, 'culture'. Missionaries and government Kayapo girls dancing during the Jemipapo ceremony. Note the girl at the lower center with the traditional Kayapo haircut. agencies initially had used the concept to define an entity that could be acted upon, producing disempowerment and dependency among the Kayapo.
The Kayapo strategy to wrest control of this concept from missionaries and government officials and turn it against them was part of a struggle not just for identity but for physical, economic and political survival.
Kayapo leaders have used ethnographic film to assert their own definition of their 'culture' and used the strategies others have used against them to challenge the processes that have marginalized them