Global Systems Global Governance Questions 7 1 Globalisation

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Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 1 – Globalisation 1. What is globalisation?

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 1 – Globalisation 1. What is globalisation? 2. What is a global village? 3. What are three forms of globalisation? 4. What is the KOF index? 5. What are three categories of social globalisation identified in the KOF index? 6. How have flows of capital changed over time? 7. How have flows of labour changed over time? 8. How have flows of products, services and information changed over time? 9. What is global marketing? 10. What is glocalisation? Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. What is

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. What is globalisation? the growing interdependence of countries through the increasing cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology 2. What is a global village? Canadian academic Marshall Mc. Luhan - describes the breakdown of spatial barriers around the world. 3. What are three forms of globalisation? Economic: largely caused by TNCs, Social: the impact of western culture. Political: growth of western democracies, influence on LICs, decline of centralised economies. 4. What is the KOF index? Konjunkturforschungsstelle - introduced 2002, covers economic (36% of the globalisation index), social (38%) & political (26%) dimensions of globalisation. 5. What are three categories of social globalisation identified in the KOF index? • Personal contacts: e. g. international telecom traffic and the degree of tourism. • Information flows: e. g. number of internet users, cable tv subscribers, number of radios & international newspapers traded. • Cultural proximity: refers mostly to the domination of US cultural products. However, there are many other companies and products that do not come from the USA: sushi, curry, Toyota and Sony.

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 6. How have

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 6. How have flows of capital changed over time? Flow of global finance increased from around $2. 5 trillion in 2002 to almost $4 trillion in 2012. In 2002 the dominant flow was between N. America and W. Europe. By 2012, the dominance of N. America/W. Europe had declined, and there was an increasingly important flow between W. Europe and E. Europe. The Chinese region had also increased in the size and number of flows that it was involved in. Overall financial flows are becoming more connected regionally. 7. How have flows of labour changed over time? Migrants are moving from countries with lower mean number of years of schooling to countries with higher mean number of years of schooling. The largest migrant flows are between Mexico and the USA (nearly 2 million migrants) and from India to the UAE (over 1 million migrants). 8. How have flows of products, services and information changed over time? HICs account for >60% of the export of goods and services and 50% of regional purchasing power. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for <2% of the export of goods and services and 3% of regional purchasing power 9. What is global marketing? When products and services are aimed at a worldwide market. 10. What is glocalisation? Glocalisation aims to produce a good that is adapted to a local market.

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 2 – Walmart and Adaptation to Globalisation

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 2 – Walmart and Adaptation to Globalisation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. To what extent is Walmart a global company? How did Walmart operate differently in Germany than the USA? How did Walmart operate differently in China than the USA? What is the shrinking world? What is the frictional effect of distance? What are enabling technologies? Name three major advances in transportation over time. What is neoliberalism? What is the WTO and what is its purpose? Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 1. Global Systems and Global To what extent

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 1. Global Systems and Global To what extent is Walmart a global company? Governance World’s biggest retailer and largest company by revenue. >11, 000 stores worldwide in 26 countries. 2. How did Walmart operate differently in Germany than the USA? Greeters were removed, singles shopping nights introduced. 3. How did Walmart operate differently in China than the USA? More leafy vegetables sold, more products sourced locally due to transportation difficulties and Chinese laws. 4. What is the shrinking world? Time-space convergence. Places feel closer together due to transport and communication improvements. 5. What is the frictional effect of distance? Areas that are closer together are more likely to interact. 6. What are enabling technologies? Inventions/innovations that allow for businesses to operate more efficiently, e. g. barcode scanners. 7. Name three major advances in transportation over time. Steam power (railways), commercial jet aircraft, container ships. 8. What is neoliberalism? A way of operating that favours private companies, free trade and reduced government spending. 9. What is the WTO and what is its purpose? Deals with rules of trade, based in Geneva, 153 members, representing 97% world trade. Liberalises trade, allows governments to negotiate trade agreements, settles trade disputes and outlines/maintains trade rules.

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 3 – Global Systems 1. What is

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 3 – Global Systems 1. What is the Wallerstein theory? 2. Why might economic stagnation be useful? 3. What are the characteristics of the capitalist world? 4. Name three tiers of countries. 5. What is feudalism? 6. What is socialism? 7. What will happen as the world develops and changes? 8. How can the benefits of migration be uneven? 9. Why have China expanded their influence into the South China Sea? 10. How was the Yamal megaproject an example of unequal power within a country? Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 1. Global Systems and Global What is the

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 1. Global Systems and Global What is the Wallerstein theory? ‘The Modern World-System’ model. Treats the world as a single unit, examines interrelationships between Governance sets of countries. 2. Why might economic stagnation be useful? It allows for restructuring and the semi-periphery to become involved in the development process. 3. What are the characteristics of the capitalist world? A global market, Many countries which allow political and economic competition, three tiers of countries. 4. Name three tiers of countries. Core, Semi-periphery and periphery. 5. What is feudalism? A system whereby a capitalist elite own the land means of production. 6. What is socialism? A system where the land means of production is owned or regulated by the whole community. 7. What will happen as the world develops and changes? There will likely be a swing towards a more socialist system or a more unequal (feudal) system. 8. How can the benefits of migration be uneven? E. g. Qatar – highest number of migrant workers to domestic population. High levels of exploitation, benefiting the country more than the migrants. Described by the Nepalese ambassador to Qatar as an ‘open jail’. 9. Why have China expanded their influence into the South China Sea? That area is vital for trade (30% of the world’s trade passes by). 10. How was the Yamal megaproject an example of unequal power within a country? Yamal holds the world’s largest gas reserve. The Nenets (N Siberian nomads) have little power here.

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 4 – International Trade and Access to

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 4 – International Trade and Access to Markets 1. How can investment lead to the emergence of new players in international trade? 2. What is R&D and KIBS? 3. What are trading blocs? 4. What is NAFTA? 5. What is the EU? 6. What are free trade areas? 7. What is a customs union? 8. What is a common market? 9. What is an economic union? 10. Why do some people think that trading blocs are unfair? Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. How can

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. How can investment lead to the emergence of new players in international trade? Development of physical infrastructure reduces trade costs. 2. What is R&D and KIBS? Research and Development. Knowledge-Intensive Business Services 3. What are trading blocs? A trading arrangement amongst a group of nations. 4. What is NAFTA? The North American Free Trade Agreement (between USA, Canada and Mexico). 5. What is the EU? The European Union. 27 member states. 6. What are free trade areas? Areas within a trade bloc where tariffs and quotas are abolished, but restrictions are placed on non-members. 7. What is a customs union? As well as free trade, all members of the trade bloc operate a common external tariff on imports. 8. What is a common market? As well as free trade, this allows free movement of people and capital. 9. What is an economic union? Groups of nation that allow free trade and movement, but also have common policies on sectors such as agriculture, industry and regional development. 10. Why do some people think that trading blocs are unfair? They deny some countries access to markets and this disadvantages the developing world.

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 5 – The Trans-Pacific Partnership, Tata and

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 5 – The Trans-Pacific Partnership, Tata and Coffee 1. How many countries are in the TPP? 2. What has happened to tariffs in the TPP? 3. What 3 strategies do TNCs use in order to survive and prosper? 4. How big is the Tata group? 5. How has Tata embraced globalisation? 6. What is Tata’s best-known ‘frugal’ product? 7. What challenges has the coffee industry faced? 8. What change affected the coffee industry after 1989? 9. Which region produces most of the world’s coffee? 10. Why do price fluctuations affect the coffee industry? Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. How many

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. How many countries are in the TPP? 12 in Asia & the Americas (USA & Japan, but not China). 40% world’s economy. 2. What has happened to tariffs in the TPP? 18, 000 individual tariffs reduced to 0. 3. What 3 strategies do TNCs use in order to survive and prosper? Rationalisation (slimming down workforce), reorganisation (improvements in production) and diversification (development of new products). 4. How big is the Tata group? Operates over 80 countries, global workforce of 395, 000 people. 5. How has Tata embraced globalisation? Foreign acquisitions, e. g. Tetley in 2000 and Jaguar Land Rover in 2008. 6. What is Tata’s best-known ‘frugal’ product? The Tata Nano, which costs about £ 1, 500 in UK money. 7. What challenges has the coffee industry faced? Climate change, price volatility, growing costs, sustainability and the development of world consumption. 8. What change affected the coffee industry after 1989? The end of regulation (International Coffee Agreements or ICAs), which managed supply & gave price stability. 9. Which region produces most of the world’s coffee? South America. 10. Why do price fluctuations affect the coffee industry? Production costs change (an ageing workforce = reduced productivity etc. ) and vulnerability to pests (e. g. leaf rust).

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 6 – Global Governance 1. What is

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 6 – Global Governance 1. What is the mission of the World Bank? 2. When was the World Bank established and where are it’s Head Quarters? 3. What are the criticisms of the World Bank? 4. What do the IMF oversee? 5. When was the IMF created and how many members does it now have? 6. What are some criticisms of the IMF? 7. What are SAPs? 8. Who are the UN? 9. When was the UN established and how many members does it have? 10. What are the 5 principle ‘organs’ of the UN? Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. What is

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. What is the mission of the World Bank? To fight poverty by providing resources, sharing knowledge and building capacity. 2. When was the World Bank established and where are it’s Head Quarters? 1944. Washington DC (>100 other offices worldwide). 3. What are the criticisms of the World Bank? Free-market reform policies seen as harmful, assumption that poor countries can only modernise with money/advice from abroad, run largely by rich countries, some evidence suggests that it has increased poverty. 4. What do the IMF oversee? The global financial systems (stabilises international exchange rates + facilitates development). 5. When was the IMF created and how many members does it now have? 1944. 189 member countries (as of 2020). 6. What are some criticisms of the IMF? Previous support to military dictators (those friendly to US and European), SAPs seen as unhelpful, austerity favoured, some responses are delayed, controlled by western nations. 7. What are SAPs? Structural Adjustment Programmes. Policies to cut government spending and promote trade.

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 8. Who are the UN? Intergovernmental organisation that

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 8. Who are the UN? Intergovernmental organisation that promotes international cooperation. 9. When was the UN established and how many members does it have? 1945 – 193 member states as of 2020. 10. What are the 5 principle ‘organs’ of the UN? 1. General Assembly – main deliberative assembly, 2. Security Council – maintain peace, 3. Economic and Social Council – promotes development, 4. the Secretariat – providing information and undertaking studies & 5. the International Court of Justice – maintains justice. Subsidiary organs include the WHO, the FAO, UNICEF etc. Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 7 – The Global Commons 1. What

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 7 – The Global Commons 1. What are the four global commons? 2. What is the Tragedy of the Commons? 3. How might climate change affect Antarctica? 4. Name 3 threats to Antarctica. 5. What is the Antarctic Treaty? 6. When was it signed? 7. What does the Treaty allow? 8. What does the Treaty prohibit? 9. Name 2 other organisations that work to protect Antarctica. 10. Which two countries blocked the bid for Marine Parks in Antarctica? Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. What are

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions Global Systems and Global Governance 1. What are the four global commons? The high seas, Antarctica, the atmosphere and outer space. 2. What is the Tragedy of the Commons? The way that selfish acts of individuals (countries) can destroy resources for others. 3. How might climate change affect Antarctica? Decline in snow cover on margins, increase snow in interior, reduced sea ice, collapse of ice shelves. 4. Name 3 threats to Antarctica. Fishing/whaling, tourism and exploitation of mineral resources. 5. What is the Antarctic Treaty? It sets out rules to protect Antarctica. 53 member countries. 6. When was it signed? 1959 (but came into force in 1961) 7. What does the Treaty allow? Scientific research, existing claims to be put on hold. 8. What does the Treaty prohibit? Military activities, no new claims, no nuclear explosions or radioactive waste…. 9. Name 2 other organisations that work to protect Antarctica. IWC (protect whales), Greenpeace (would like Antarctica as a World Park). 10. Which two countries blocked the bid for Marine Parks in Antarctica? Russia and Ukraine.

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 8 – Globalisation Critique 1. What do

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 8 – Globalisation Critique 1. What do hyperglobalists believe? 2. What do sceptics believe? 3. What do transformationalists believe? Global Systems and Global Governance

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 8 – Globalisation Critique Global Systems and

Global Systems & Global Governance Questions 7. 8 – Globalisation Critique Global Systems and Global Governance 1. What do hyperglobalists believe? New geographical era. Nation state no longer important. Single global market. Trading blocs increasingly important. 2. What do sceptics believe? Question whether globalisation is new. National governments still the most important players. 3. What do transformationalists believe? See the middle ground. Globalisation is real and is changing societies. Extension of colonial relationships. Cultural exchanges lead to hybrids.