- Slides: 37
Nationalism and the Nation State Nationalism is a feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s nation. It is a feeling that develops among people who may share a common language, history, set of traditions, or goal. Nationalism often causes people to join together to choose their own form of government, without outside interference. Nationalism can unite people into cohesive, stable nations. Likewise, it can tear nations apart which can result in long periods of social upheaval and political chaos.
Unification of Germany (1861 – 1871) Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister “IRON CHANCELLOR” of Prussia believes in Realpolitik, or real politics based on a tough-minded evaluation of the needs of the state. Using any means, including force, to advance national interests. Bismarck was a strong proponent of "Blood and Iron". Blood represented the sacrifices the German people would have to make in achieving the goal of unification. A culture of militarism, or the glorification of the military, was created by the crafty Bismarck. This played out in a series of wars against the Austrians
Germany – 1871) • Unification Danish War- of In 1864, Prussia(1861 allied with Austria to seize land from Denmark. • Austro-Prussian War- In 1866, Prussia turned against Austria to gain more land. Prussia overwhelmed Austria in just seven weeks. Several German states were united with Prussia in the North German Confederation. • Franco-Prussian War- In 1870, Bismarck used nationalism and the bitter memories of Napoleon’s conquests to stir up support for a war against France. Prussia and its German allies easily defeated France. During the war, southern German states agreed to unite with Prussia.
Unification of Germany (1861 – 1871) • All states join the ZOLLVEREIN- agree not to tax goods coming from state to state = Economic unity • In 1871, the German states united under the Prussian king, William I. As their ruler, William called himself the Kaiser (emperor). 1871 -1914 • ESTABLISH THE SECOND REICH -Limited Constitutional Monarchy
Unification of Germany (1861 – 1871) EATURES OF THE NEW GERMANY 1. AUTHORITARIAN 2. GREAT INDUSTRIALIZATION 3. MILITARISM-HUGE & POWERFUL ARMY **CREATION OF GERMAY UPSETS THE BALANCE OF POWER Germany’s ONLY COMPETITION IS GREAT BRITIAN. THIS RIVALRY WILL BE ONE OF THE FACTORS LEADING TO WORLD WAR I
UNIFICATION OF ITALY (1859 – 1870) The political structure of the Italian peninsula prior to 1861 was that of a fragmented group of small kingdoms and principalities. There was no political cohesion while internal fighting and rivalries were hampering any progress. However, the people of the Italian peninsula, shared language, culture and a historical background. Some Italian leaders began calling for nationalism with the goal of bringing Italy together into a sovereign nation-state with autonomous rule.
UNIFICATION OF ITALY (1859 – 1870) 1859 RISORGIMENTO (ITALIAN NATIONALISM) Reawakened USE POLICY OF REALPOLITIK, LEAD BY SARDINIA
IMPORTANT PEOPLE OF THE UNIFICATION The three great leaders of Italian nationalism were Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi. Giuseppe Mazzini was instrumental in being the "soul" of Italian nationalism. Mazzini also established the secret society known as the Young Italy, an organization devoted to a united Italy in 1831, but he was exiled for his views. His writings and speeches provided inspiration to the nationalist movement, however.
IMPORTANT PEOPLE OF THE UNIFICATION Count Camillo Cavour, prime minister of the Italian state of Sardinia, shrewdly formed alliances with France and later with Prussia. Cavour was the "brain" in his role as a skilled diplomat. He used diplomacy and war to dive Austrian power from Italy.
IMPORTANT PEOPLE OF THE UNIFICATION Count Giuseppe Garibaldi was a soldier who led the forces that won control of southern Italy and helped it to unite with the north. Garibaldi was considered to be the "sword" of Italian nationalism. His band of Red Shirts conquered forces opposed to unification and forced southern Italy into a cohesive political unit. By 1861, Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was crowned king of a united Italy. Rome and Venice, at first not part of Italy, were later included by 1870.
Count Giuseppe Garibaldi
1. GIUSEPPE MAZZINI “SOUL” -INSPIRED PEOPLE w/WRITINGS & SPEECHES TO REVOLT 2. COUNT CAMILLO CAVOUR “BRAINS” -PRIME MINISTER OF the Italian state of SARDINIA -FORMED ALLIANCES W/BRITIAN & FRANCE & EXPELLS AUSTRIA FROM PARTS OF ITALY 3. GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI “SWORD” -ORGANIZES ARMY CALLED RED SHIRTS REBELLION IN SOUTHERN ITALY = SUCCESSFUL -1867 UNITES NORTH AND SOUTH PARTS=THE KINGDON OF ITALY -LIMITED MONARCHY UNDER KING VICTOR EMMANUEL II
NATIONALSIM AND CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS Nationalism was a source of conflict in the Balkan peninsula of southeastern Europe. In the 1800 s, the Ottoman Empire still ruled much of the area, which was home to many groups. Among these were Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians, and Romanians. During the 1800 s, nationalist groups in the Balkans rebelled against foreign rule. From 1829 to 1908, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria all gained their independence.
NATIONALSIM AND CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS The nations of Europe viewed the Ottoman Empire as “the sick man of Europe. ” They hoped to gain land from the Ottoman Empire. Russia, Austria-Hungary, Britain, and France all entered into alliances and wars that were designed to gain territory from the Ottoman Empire.
NATIONALSIM AND CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS Russia sponsored a nationalistic movement called Pan. Slavism, based on the idea that all Slavic peoples shared a common nationality. Serbia had a large Slavic population and was supported by Russia. Austria. Hungary, however, feared Serbian nationalism and angered Serbia by taking control in 1908 of two provinces that would have given Serbia access to the Adriatic Sea. In the early years of 1900, crisis after crisis broke out on the Balkan Peninsula. By 1914, the Balkans was the “powder keg of Europe”. Tensions soon exploded into a full-scale global conflict: World War I.
NATIONALSIM AND CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS OTTOMAN EMPIRE “SICK MAN OF EUROPE” Nationalism inspired non-Turkish citizens to demand independence = Pan-Slavism movement to untie all Slavic people European powers met in 1878 at the Congress of Berlin to resolve the problem without war. Ottoman Empire broken up Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania become independent. Balkan Wars – take place as alliances form to gain territory in the area.
Nationalism creates Unity but it can also create Disunity Austro-Hungarian Empire 1848 Hungarian Nationalist force Emperor Franz Josef to drafted a new constitution but it gave political power to German-speaking people and ignored the majority of people. Also, after the defeat by Bismarck's Germany, the Austrian Empire was redesigned as the Dual Monarchy, also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austria and Hungary had separate governments and constitutions but Josef remained as leader of both. This satisfied some but not all. The various Slavic groups remained unrepresented in the government. The turmoil caused by nationalism weakened Austro-Hungary to the point of utter collapse by the end of the World War I.
Because of its vast size, the empire was never highly centralized. The Sultan relied on provincial officials to control his large empire DISUNITY The Ottoman Turks failed to keep pace with Western technology and science. Muslim religious leaders frequently opposed change. FAILURE TO MODERNIZE WHY THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE DECLINED
WHY THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE DECLINED WARFARE The Ottomans lost important territories to Austria and Russia in the 1700 s. Russia, as protector of Orthodox Christianity, continued to wage a series of wars against Turkey in the 1800 s. NATIONALISM As nationalism became more widespread, the difficulties of governing different nationalities grew. Serbs, Greeks, and Romanians all gained independence from the Ottomans during
Pan-Arabism and Zionism in the Middle East Following the withdrawal of European imperialism from the Middle East, a variety of nationalistic groups sprung up demanding sovereignty for their respective nations. Arab nationalism was present in Algeria, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Jordon, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. The Arab world is defined as nations practicing the religion of Islam. A call for Pan-Arabism was made by Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had the desire to unite all the nations of the Arab world.
Pan-Arabism and Zionism in the Middle East The Pan-Arabic movement flourished for a short period when the Arab world was contesting the presence of the Jewish state of Israel, but has since decayed as Islamic countries squabbled amongst themselves over territory and oil. Zionism, founded by Theodor Herzl, is defined as the nationalistic movement of Jewish people and their desire to establish their own sovereign nation in the Holy Land.
Pan-Arabism and Zionism in the Middle East The rise of nationalism in Europe had led to an intensification of anti-Semitism in the late 1800 s. As citizens grew more patriotic about their own nations, they often grew more intolerant of those whom they saw as outsiders, including the Jews. As anti-Semitism grew in Europe, some Jews moved to Palestine, the ancient Jewish homeland, buying land that they organized into farming communities.
Pan-Arabism and Zionism in the Middle East An Austrian Jewish journalist named Theodor Herzl became alarmed by the strong anti-Semitism he witnessed in France. In 1896, Herzl called for Jews to establish their own state. Herzl’s writings helped to build Zionism, the movement devoted to building a Jewish state in Palestine. In 1897, he organized the first world congress of Zionists, which met in Switzerland.
Kemal Ataturk and the Westernization of Turkey President Kemal was now popularly known as Ataturk, or “Father Turk”. His goal was to modernize Turkey. He put a democratic system in place, although he did not tolerate opposition and harshly suppressed his critics. Ataturk’s most significant goal may have been the desire to make Turkey a secular state. The caliphate was formally abolished in 1924. Men were forbidden to wear the fez, the brimless cap worn by Turkish Muslims. Women were forbidden to wear the veil.
Kemal Ataturk and the Westernization of Turkey New laws gave women marriage and inheritance rights equal to men’s. The changes went beyond politics. Many Arabic letters were eliminated from the alphabet. People were forced to adopt last names, in the European style. Popular education was introduced. Ataturk, with great foresight, instituted reform policies that westernized and modernized the new nation of Turkey
Nationalism in Latin America -Rigid class system set up in the colonies 1. Peninsulares - Spanish officials who rule 2. Creoles-children of people from Spain 3. Mestizos-people of Indian & European descent 4. Native Americans & Africans 5. African slaves **Class system separated people but belief in the Roman Catholic religion brought people together
Why did Latin Americans want independence? 1. 2. 3. 4. Social Structure is bad Mercantilism-colonies are poor, pay high taxes Nationalism-proud of being American not European Inspired by other revolutions= American & French American Independence Movement (1800 -1825) Haiti first - Toussaint L’Overture Northern S. America (Venezuela, Colombia, etc. ) – Simon Bolivar “The Liberator” Southern South America (Argentina, Peru, Chile) - Jose de San Ma Mexico - Miguel Hidalgo
Problems with Independence No unity between nations-why? Geography features – mountains and rainforests created regionalism - loyal to region - social structure still in place No democracies dictators or military power took power - CANDILOS
Nationalism was also the driving force behind the revolutions of Latin America. The issue behind the episodes of the 19 th century involved the shedding of imperial control from Europe, as was the case in the American Revolution. Some notable personalities include Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, and Toussaint L'Ouverture. Bolívar and de San Martín both raised armies to drive the Spanish out of South America to establish autonomous governments. L'Ouverture led the revolt in Haiti to cast out French influence. What was L'Ouverture's inspiration? The French Revolution.
Nation Building in Latin America In Latin America, peninsulares, Spanish and Portuguese officials who lived temporarily in Latin America for economic or political gain, had all the power. Next in the social order were the Creoles; descendents of Europeans who lived permanently in Latin America. Peninsulares regarded the Creoles as second-class citizens, and Creoles deeply resented them. The largest part of the population consisted of mestizos (people of European and native descent) and natives, who worked as servants or laborers.
Change and Revolution The Creole elites denounced Spanish and Portuguese rule. When Napoleon’s wars weakened these rulers, a series of revolts enabled most of Latin America to become independent.
Haiti In 1791, slaves lead by Toussaint L’Ouverture seized control of all of the island of Hispaniola. The western part, Haiti, announced its freedom and became the first independent state in Latin America.
Mexico Miguel Hidalgo a Creole priest led Indians and mestizos in Mexico to revolt against Spain in 1810. This unsuccessful revolt threatened both the peninsulares and Creoles. Father Jose Morelos a mestizo wanted to improve conditions for the majority of Mexicans. Morelos led rebel forces for four years before he, too, was captured and executed. Conservative elites then overthrew Spanish rule in 1821. Agustin de Iturbide declared himself emperor in 1822 but was deposed in 1823. Mexico then became a republic.
South America Jose de San Martin of Argentina liberated Argentina from Spanish authority by 1810. He then went on to liberate Chile. Meanwhile, Simon Bolivar was leading revolts in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. In Peru, San Martin and Bolivar joined forces to crush the Spanish army. By the end of 1824, all Central and South American States had become independent, including Brazil, which had declared its independence from Portugal in 1822.
Difficulties of Nation Building The wars for independence resulted in the loss of people, property, and livestock. The new nations went to war to settle border disputes. They did not have the transportation or communication systems to help their nations develop. Bolivar faced disappointment as power struggles among rival leaders triggered violent civil wars. Land remained the basis of wealth, and only a few elites owned most of the land. These landed elites, ran government, controlled courts, and used a system of inexpensive labor. They made enormous profits while the masses experienced dire poverty.