- Slides: 29
Global History 9 Midterm Exam Review
The First humans?
Prehistory: • Period before writing was developed
Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) • Hunter-Gatherer Lifestyle • Nomadic • people migrated in search of food supplies; • Limited population • smaller clans/ tribes • Use of fire, simple tools
Neolithic Revolution • shift from hunter/gatherer lifestyle to a permanent, agricultural lifestyle • Domestication of animals • Leads to civilizations • New technology • Populations increase
Civilizations • What characteristics make something a civilization ? • What characteristics where particularly important to the civilizations that follow ?
First Civilizations – where & why?
Mesopotamia The Tigris and Euphrates rivers define Mesopotamia which means “between the rivers” in Greek. Also called ? ? ?
Sumerians • city-states (ex: Ur, Uruk) • Cuneiform – written language that uses pictographs • Ziggurat construction • Metal plow, use of wheel • polytheism
Babylonians • Modern Iraq (Tigris. Euphrates Valley) • Hammurabi’s Law Code – characteristics?
Indus River Valley Civilization • • • Mohenjo-Daro or Harappan Culture – Sewer system, grid streets, uniform building construction; all examples of centralized government. What does this evidence suggest about this civilization?
China’s River Valley Civilization • Huang He River (Yellow River Valley) - Nickname? • Impact of Geography? • Shang Dynasty – 1650 BC • Developed written script (see __________)
ZHOU DYNASTY 1100 BCE – 221 BCE • Concept of Mandate of Heaven and the Dynastic Cycle • Feudal system • First books • How to make silk from cocoons of silk worm
SHI HUANGDI and Qin Dynasty – 221 BCE – 206 BCE • Proclaimed himself “First Emperor” • Centralized gov’t • Promoted uniformity in Chinese writing • Great Wall • Terracotta Warriors
Ethnocentrism • Belief that one’s culture is superior to all others • Highly negative connotation
Kingdoms of the Middle East: Phoenicians • 22 character alphabet becomes basis for Greek Alphabet
Lydians • Used coin money; replaces barter system
Religion / Philosophy The major ideas of the following beliefs systems are listed here; that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t know other things about them !!!!!!
Hinduism • • Origins: India • Reincarnation • Concepts of dharma, karma • Polytheistic • Vedas, Upanishads are holy texts
Confucianism • Origins: China • Based on the teachings of Confucius • Human nature is generally good – the good in people can be cultivated through education • Emphasis is on the group rather than the individual; the needs of the group are more important • 5 Key Relationships; the superior person must set a good example • Scholars hold highest position in government; education is the noblest pursuit • Basis of civil service exam throughout Chinese
Buddhism • Origins - India • Founded by Siddartha Guatama • Four Noble Truths – Life is ______ and the cause of it is _____ • You can reach Enlightenment if you follow the ______ • Rejects the Caste System • Embraces ideas of karma and reincarnation • Explanation of life through the Four Noble Truths • Encourage moral life as described in the Eightfold Path
Animism • belief that a soul or spirit existed in every object, even if it was inanimate (nonliving) • Found in traditional African cultures and Native American cultures
Judaism • Religion of the Hebrews • monotheistic • Belief in the covenant; promise made between Yahweh (God) & Abraham • Led from slavery in Egypt by Moses (story of the Exodus) • Torah- holy scriptures (first 5 books of the Old testament)
Christianity • Based largely in the Jewish tradition • Jesus of Nazareth believed to be Messiah • holy scripture- New Testament –Gospels • Various divisions and sects have developed Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Protestant faiths
Interdependence • Term that highlights the reliance that cultures have on one another • Particularly true in modern world; limited resources require greater cooperation on the part of individual nations so that all people have access to needed materials • Also demonstrated by early societies where success of society depended on everyone fulfilling their roles
Monarchy • Political system where a single ruler, presumably from a noble family, runs the government • Most common political system in early civilizations • EX- Egypt, Chinese Dynasties
Democracy • Political system where power is in the hands of the citizens • Athens was a direct democracy • The Roman Republic was a representative democracy (model for U. S. constitution)
Greece • Achievements in math, science, philosophy, art, architecture • City-state structure • Athenian democracy • Alexander the Great
Rome • • • Begins as a city-state, republic • Expands to Empire • Civil War leads to imperial government • Pax Romana • Roads, cities, aqueducts, architecture • Influence of law • rise of Christianity