Global History 9 Midterm Exam Review The First

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Global History 9 Midterm Exam Review

Global History 9 Midterm Exam Review

The First humans?

The First humans?

Prehistory: • Period before writing was developed

Prehistory: • Period before writing was developed

Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) • Hunter-Gatherer Lifestyle • Nomadic • people migrated in

Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) • Hunter-Gatherer Lifestyle • Nomadic • people migrated in search of food supplies; • Limited population • smaller clans/ tribes • Use of fire, simple tools

Neolithic Revolution • shift from hunter/gatherer lifestyle to a permanent, agricultural lifestyle • Domestication

Neolithic Revolution • shift from hunter/gatherer lifestyle to a permanent, agricultural lifestyle • Domestication of animals • Leads to civilizations • New technology • Populations increase

Civilizations • What characteristics make something a civilization ? • What characteristics where particularly

Civilizations • What characteristics make something a civilization ? • What characteristics where particularly important to the civilizations that follow ?

First Civilizations – where & why?

First Civilizations – where & why?

Mesopotamia The Tigris and Euphrates rivers define Mesopotamia which means “between the rivers” in

Mesopotamia The Tigris and Euphrates rivers define Mesopotamia which means “between the rivers” in Greek. Also called ? ? ?

Sumerians • city-states (ex: Ur, Uruk) • Cuneiform – written language that uses pictographs

Sumerians • city-states (ex: Ur, Uruk) • Cuneiform – written language that uses pictographs • Ziggurat construction • Metal plow, use of wheel • polytheism

Babylonians • Modern Iraq (Tigris. Euphrates Valley) • Hammurabi’s Law Code – characteristics?

Babylonians • Modern Iraq (Tigris. Euphrates Valley) • Hammurabi’s Law Code – characteristics?

Indus River Valley Civilization • • • Mohenjo-Daro or Harappan Culture – Sewer system,

Indus River Valley Civilization • • • Mohenjo-Daro or Harappan Culture – Sewer system, grid streets, uniform building construction; all examples of centralized government. What does this evidence suggest about this civilization?

China’s River Valley Civilization • Huang He River (Yellow River Valley) - Nickname? •

China’s River Valley Civilization • Huang He River (Yellow River Valley) - Nickname? • Impact of Geography? • Shang Dynasty – 1650 BC • Developed written script (see __________)

ZHOU DYNASTY 1100 BCE – 221 BCE • Concept of Mandate of Heaven and

ZHOU DYNASTY 1100 BCE – 221 BCE • Concept of Mandate of Heaven and the Dynastic Cycle • Feudal system • First books • How to make silk from cocoons of silk worm

SHI HUANGDI and Qin Dynasty – 221 BCE – 206 BCE • Proclaimed himself

SHI HUANGDI and Qin Dynasty – 221 BCE – 206 BCE • Proclaimed himself “First Emperor” • Centralized gov’t • Promoted uniformity in Chinese writing • Great Wall • Terracotta Warriors

Ethnocentrism • Belief that one’s culture is superior to all others • Highly negative

Ethnocentrism • Belief that one’s culture is superior to all others • Highly negative connotation

Kingdoms of the Middle East: Phoenicians • 22 character alphabet becomes basis for Greek

Kingdoms of the Middle East: Phoenicians • 22 character alphabet becomes basis for Greek Alphabet

Lydians • Used coin money; replaces barter system

Lydians • Used coin money; replaces barter system

Religion / Philosophy The major ideas of the following beliefs systems are listed here;

Religion / Philosophy The major ideas of the following beliefs systems are listed here; that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t know other things about them !!!!!!

Hinduism • • Origins: India • Reincarnation • Concepts of dharma, karma • Polytheistic

Hinduism • • Origins: India • Reincarnation • Concepts of dharma, karma • Polytheistic • Vedas, Upanishads are holy texts

Confucianism • Origins: China • Based on the teachings of Confucius • Human nature

Confucianism • Origins: China • Based on the teachings of Confucius • Human nature is generally good – the good in people can be cultivated through education • Emphasis is on the group rather than the individual; the needs of the group are more important • 5 Key Relationships; the superior person must set a good example • Scholars hold highest position in government; education is the noblest pursuit • Basis of civil service exam throughout Chinese

Buddhism • Origins - India • Founded by Siddartha Guatama • Four Noble Truths

Buddhism • Origins - India • Founded by Siddartha Guatama • Four Noble Truths – Life is ______ and the cause of it is _____ • You can reach Enlightenment if you follow the ______ • Rejects the Caste System • Embraces ideas of karma and reincarnation • Explanation of life through the Four Noble Truths • Encourage moral life as described in the Eightfold Path

Animism • belief that a soul or spirit existed in every object, even if

Animism • belief that a soul or spirit existed in every object, even if it was inanimate (nonliving) • Found in traditional African cultures and Native American cultures

Judaism • Religion of the Hebrews • monotheistic • Belief in the covenant; promise

Judaism • Religion of the Hebrews • monotheistic • Belief in the covenant; promise made between Yahweh (God) & Abraham • Led from slavery in Egypt by Moses (story of the Exodus) • Torah- holy scriptures (first 5 books of the Old testament)

Christianity • Based largely in the Jewish tradition • Jesus of Nazareth believed to

Christianity • Based largely in the Jewish tradition • Jesus of Nazareth believed to be Messiah • holy scripture- New Testament –Gospels • Various divisions and sects have developed Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Protestant faiths

Interdependence • Term that highlights the reliance that cultures have on one another •

Interdependence • Term that highlights the reliance that cultures have on one another • Particularly true in modern world; limited resources require greater cooperation on the part of individual nations so that all people have access to needed materials • Also demonstrated by early societies where success of society depended on everyone fulfilling their roles

Monarchy • Political system where a single ruler, presumably from a noble family, runs

Monarchy • Political system where a single ruler, presumably from a noble family, runs the government • Most common political system in early civilizations • EX- Egypt, Chinese Dynasties

Democracy • Political system where power is in the hands of the citizens •

Democracy • Political system where power is in the hands of the citizens • Athens was a direct democracy • The Roman Republic was a representative democracy (model for U. S. constitution)

Greece • Achievements in math, science, philosophy, art, architecture • City-state structure • Athenian

Greece • Achievements in math, science, philosophy, art, architecture • City-state structure • Athenian democracy • Alexander the Great

Rome • • • Begins as a city-state, republic • Expands to Empire •

Rome • • • Begins as a city-state, republic • Expands to Empire • Civil War leads to imperial government • Pax Romana • Roads, cities, aqueducts, architecture • Influence of law • rise of Christianity