Global ecology Landscape ecology Ecosystem ecology Community ecology

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Global ecology Landscape ecology Ecosystem ecology Community ecology Population ecology Organismal ecology © 2014

Global ecology Landscape ecology Ecosystem ecology Community ecology Population ecology Organismal ecology © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1

Atmosphere 90 N (North Pole) Low angle of incoming sunlight 23. 5 N (Tropic

Atmosphere 90 N (North Pole) Low angle of incoming sunlight 23. 5 N (Tropic of Cancer) Sun overhead at equinoxes 0 (Equator) 23. 5 S (Tropic of Capricorn) Low angle of incoming sunlight 90 S (South Pole) Latitudinal variation in sunlight intensity © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2

66. 5 N (Arctic Circle) 60 N 30 N Westerlies Ascending moist air releases

66. 5 N (Arctic Circle) 60 N 30 N Westerlies Ascending moist air releases moisture. Northeast trades 0 Southeast trades 30 S Descending dry air absorbs moisture. 0 Westerlies 60 S 66. 5 S (Antarctic Circle) Global air circulation and precipitation patterns © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 3

March equinox December solstice Constant tilt of 23. 5 June solstice © 2014 Pearson

March equinox December solstice Constant tilt of 23. 5 June solstice © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 60 N 30 N 0 (equator) 30 S September equinox 4

Labrador Current California Current PACIFIC OCEAN © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Gulf Stream ATLANTIC

Labrador Current California Current PACIFIC OCEAN © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Gulf Stream ATLANTIC OCEAN 5

Leeward side of mountains Air flow Mountain range Ocean © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Leeward side of mountains Air flow Mountain range Ocean © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 6

30 N Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn 30 S Tropical forest Savanna

30 N Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn 30 S Tropical forest Savanna Desert Chaparral Temperate grassland © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Tundra High mountains Polar ice 7

Annual mean temperature ( C) Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest 30 Temperate broadleaf forest

Annual mean temperature ( C) Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest 30 Temperate broadleaf forest 15 Northern coniferous forest 0 Arctic and alpine tundra 15 0 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 200 100 400 300 Annual mean precipitation (cm) 8

A tropical rain forest in Costa Rica © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 9

A tropical rain forest in Costa Rica © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 9

A savanna in Kenya © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 10

A savanna in Kenya © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 10

Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 11

Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 11

An area of chaparral in California © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 12

An area of chaparral in California © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 12

A grassland in Mongolia © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 13

A grassland in Mongolia © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 13

A coniferous forest in Norway © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 14

A coniferous forest in Norway © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 14

A temperate broadleaf forest in New Jersey © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 15

A temperate broadleaf forest in New Jersey © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 15

Dovrefjell National Park, Norway © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 16

Dovrefjell National Park, Norway © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 16

A basin wetland in the United Kingdom © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 17

A basin wetland in the United Kingdom © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 17

An oligotrophic lake in Alberta, Canada © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 18

An oligotrophic lake in Alberta, Canada © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 18

A headwater stream in Washington © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 19

A headwater stream in Washington © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 19

A rocky intertidal zone on the Oregon coast © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 20

A rocky intertidal zone on the Oregon coast © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 20

A coral reef in the Red Sea © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 21

A coral reef in the Red Sea © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 21

Open ocean near Iceland © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 22

Open ocean near Iceland © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 22

A deep-sea hydrothermal vent community © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 23

A deep-sea hydrothermal vent community © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 23

Littoral zone Limnetic zone Photic zone Benthic zone Aphotic zone Pelagic zone Zonation in

Littoral zone Limnetic zone Photic zone Benthic zone Aphotic zone Pelagic zone Zonation in a lake © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 24

Yes Why is species X absent from an area? Does dispersal limit its distribution?

Yes Why is species X absent from an area? Does dispersal limit its distribution? No Area inaccessible or insufficient time Do biotic factors (other species) limit its distribution? No Water, oxygen, salinity, p. H, soil nutrients, etc. Temperature, light, soil structure, fire, moisture, etc. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical factors Yes Predation, parasitism, competition, disease Do abiotic factors limit its distribution? Physical factors 25

Births and immigration add individuals to a population. Immigration © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Births and immigration add individuals to a population. Immigration © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Deaths and emigration remove individuals from a population. Emigration 26

(a) Clumped (b) Uniform © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. (c) Random 27

(a) Clumped (b) Uniform © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. (c) Random 27

Number of survivors (log scale) 1, 000 I 100 II 10 © 2014 Pearson

Number of survivors (log scale) 1, 000 I 100 II 10 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. III 1 0 50 Percentage of maximum life span 100 28

2, 000 Population size (N) d. N 1. 0 N dt 1, 500 d.

2, 000 Population size (N) d. N 1. 0 N dt 1, 500 d. N 0. 5 N dt 1, 000 500 0 0 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 10 Number of generations 15 29

Population size (N) K carrying capacity (K − N) d. N rmax N K

Population size (N) K carrying capacity (K − N) d. N rmax N K dt Number of generations © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 30

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 31

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 31

Exponential growth d. N 1. 0 N dt Population size (N) 2, 000 1,

Exponential growth d. N 1. 0 N dt Population size (N) 2, 000 1, 500 K 1, 500 1, 000 Logistic growth (1, 500 N) d. N 1. 0 N 1, 500 dt Population growth begins slowing here. 500 0 0 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 5 Number of generations 15 32

Dandelions grow quickly and release a large number of tiny fruits. The Brazil nut

Dandelions grow quickly and release a large number of tiny fruits. The Brazil nut tree (above), produces a moderate number of large seeds in pods (left). © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 33

Birth or death rate per capita When population density is low, b m. As

Birth or death rate per capita When population density is low, b m. As a result, the population grows until the density reaches Q. When population density is high, m b, and the population shrinks until the density reaches Q. Equilibrium density (Q) Density-independent death rate (m) Density-dependent birth rate (b) Population density © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 34

Competition for resources © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 35

Competition for resources © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 35

Predation © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 36

Predation © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 36

Disease © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 37

Disease © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 37

Toxic wastes © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 m 38

Toxic wastes © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 m 38

Territoriality © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 39

Territoriality © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 39

Intrinsic factors © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 40

Intrinsic factors © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 40

2, 500 Wolves Moose 40 2, 000 30 1, 500 20 1, 000 10

2, 500 Wolves Moose 40 2, 000 30 1, 500 20 1, 000 10 500 0 1955 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1965 1975 1985 Year 1995 2005 Number of moose Number of wolves 50 0 41