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Global Cryosphere Watch Jeff Key NOAA USA GCW Tropical Cryosphere Workshop Arusha, Tanzania 4 -6 July 2017
The cryosphere collectively describes elements of the earth system containing water in its frozen state and includes: solid precipitation, snow cover, sea ice, lake and river ice, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, ice shelves, permafrost and seasonally frozen ground. The cryosphere is global, ~100 countries
A Changing Cryosphere is Important Changes in the cryosphere can have significant impacts on water supply, transportation, infrastructure, hunting, fisheries, recreation, and ecology. Sea level rise threatens vital infrastructure. Changes in sea ice affect access to the polar oceans and resources, tourism, and security. Declining summer sea-ice affects ocean circulation and weather patterns. Natural hazards such as icebergs, avalanches and glacier outburst floods create risks. Permafrost thawing impacts infrastructure and is potentially a major source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Changes in the cryosphere impact water supply, food production, freshwater ecosystems, hydropower production, and the risk of floods and droughts. Retreating sea ice results in a loss of habitat for mammals such as polar bears and seals.
We need high quality observations for… Climate monitoring and assessment
. . . data assimilation and NWP… Comparison of snow water equivalent (SWE) for the no SWE simulation (green), the assimilation simulation (red), and the in situ measurements (black) averaged over all SNOTEL sites in the study region. 11
…and operational applications 6
GCW Mission GCW will provide authoritative, clear, and useable data, information, and analyses on the past, current and future state of the cryosphere. GCW includes: • Observations – surface network, best practices, requirements • Products – satellite products and intercomparisons • Information and services – monitoring and assessment • Data access and distribution through its Data Portal
GCW Development History WMO 16 th Congress approves GCW development Cryo. Net Team meeting (Reykjavik) First Cryo. Net workshop (Vienna) Cg-17 GCW Implement. Tropical Cryosphere Workshop (Tanzania) … 2007 2008 IGOS Cryosphere Theme Report published Operational (2020) WMO 15 th Congress welcomes proposal for GCW First Snow Watch workshop (Toronto) Pre-operational (2016 -2019) First GCW Implementation Workshop (Geneva) … 2011 2012 2013 Asia Cryo. Net workshop (Beijing) 2014 2015 2016 2017 South America Cryo. Net workshop Second Asia Cryo. Net workshop (Salekhard, Russia) 2018 2020
Organization: GCW Conceptual Framework The WMO Executive Council expert panel on Polar Observations, Research, and Services (EC-PORS) oversees GCW.
Portal Website and Outreach Terminology Information and Services Working Group South America Regional Group Asia Regional Group Tropical Cryosphere Regional Group Steering Group Observations Working Group Cryo. Net Best Practices Integrated Products Working Group Sea Ice Products Snow Watch
What is GCW doing? • developing a network of surface observations called "Cryo. Net", which builds on existing networks; • developing measurement guidelines and best practices; • refining observational requirements for the WMO Rolling Review of Requirements; • engaging in and supporting, intercomparisons of products, e. g. , the GCW Snow Watch project; • creating unique products, e. g. , the SWE Tracker, in collaboration with partners; • building a cryosphere glossary; • providing up-to-date information on the state of the cryosphere; • providing access to data through a portal; • contributing to WMO’s space-based capabilities database (with PSTG); • engaging in historical data rescue (e. g. , snow depth); • developing international training and outreach materials; • co-sponsoring workshops.
A robust cryosphere observing system includes in situ and satellite measurements
GCW Surface Network Cryo. Net station Sigma-A Cryo. Net site Tiksi Contributing station Mocho-Choshuenco Volcano
Cryo. Net – the core GCW Network …an immediate priority in GCW development. § Cryo. Net is one part of the GCW observing system, which is a component observing system of the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS). § Cryo. Net covers all components of the cryosphere (glaciers, ice shelves, ice sheets, snow, permafrost, sea ice, river/lake ice) through an extensive approach of in-situ observations. § Extensive monitoring of cryosphere through GCW agreed (standardized) practices for cryospheric observations. § Cryo. Net is initially comprised of existing stations/sites, rather than creating new sites.
Cryo. Net - Structure To meet different user-needs and because of the spatially distributed nature of different components of the cryosphere the Cryo. Net network of in-situ observations is structured into observational stations and sites.
Cryo. Net Station Minimum Requirements http: //globalcryospherewatch. org/cryonet/requirements. html 16
Cryo. Net Measurements: Required, Recommended, Desired This is the variable list for snow. All lists are on the GCW website. 17
Measurement standards and practices “IUGG urges snow and ice scientists, practitioners, and scientists from related disciplines to adopt these new schemes as standards. ”
GCW Surface Network: Snow and Permafrost Snow Permafrost
GCW Surface Network: Glaciers and Ice Sheets Glaciers Ice Sheets
GCW Surface Network: Sea and Freshwater Ice Sea Ice Freshwater Ice
The GCW Surface Network: All Cryo. Net and contributing stations, both approved and candidate Gaps
Organizations Contributing to the GCW Surface Network NMHSs • • • • Argentine National Meteorological Service Australian Bureau of Meteorology ZAMG (Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Austria) Federal Hydrometeorological Institute Bosnia-Hertzegovina Environment and Climate Change Canada Base de datos del Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (INAMHI-Ecuador Finnish Meterological Institute (FMI) Météo-France – CNRS Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) Department of Hydrometeorology Nepal in collaboration with National Academy of science and Technology Pakistan Meteorological Department AEMET (Spain) NOAA Universities, Research, and Other Organizations • • • • Arctic Institute of North America Universidad de Chile Chinese Academy of Sciences Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Université Grenoble Alpes - Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy ENEA – CNR: National Research Council of Italy Okayama University, Japan National Institute for Polar Research, Japan WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF Davos, Switzerland Appalachian State University, USA Argentine Navy Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales Geocryology, Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales Huilo Foundation
Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) • PSTG was established in 2011 under auspices of EC-PHORS. • PSTG members nominated by Heads of space agencies. • Objectives: • Provide coordination across space agencies • Provide support to development of products for cryospheric research and applications • Seek realization of benefits from the growing constellation of polar orbiting satellites (Credit: Nagler et al. , 2016) 24
GCW-PSTG Synergy GCW‘s Snow Watch began a snow product intercomparison project, which was expanded through ESA‘s Snow. PEX project. ~1200 Gt Glob. Snow SWE estimate Models vs. satellite-based products
Other GCW Products and Services • • Trackers Assessments Snow product inventory Glossary
Requirements and Capability for observations • GCW Requirements are being formulated and documented on the GCW website; • They will draw from various sets of existing user requirements and will be vetted by the scientific community; • Those requirements will become part of the WMO Rolling Review of Requirements (RRR); • Will be accessible through the Observing Systems Capability Analysis and Review Tool (OSCAR), the official source for WMO requirements, which has a cryosphere theme; • Need for a new application area “GCW”.
GCW Data Portal • Is part of WIS (WMO Information System); • Is interoperable with a distributed network of data centers and users • Connecting a heterogeneous community of data providers gcw. met. no
Information Website The website differs from the METNO GCW data portal in that it contains more dynamic information (news, state of the cryosphere plots, highlights, calendar), as well as background, higher-level information, GCW documents, and outreach material. It links to the METNO data portal. globalcryospherewatch. org
69 th Session of the WMO Executive Council (EC-69, May 2017) Requests: Members to continue contributing to the development and implementation of the GCW surface observing network, by proposing additional Cryo. Net stations in polar and high mountain regions, to provide better coverage for all cryosphere components (e. g. snow, solid precipitation, glaciers, ice, permafrost, sea ice, river/lake ice).
Why be a part of the GCW Surface Network? • Being a GCW station means being part of an international, operational, global observing system providing observations of known quality for research and knowledge beyond a site’s local region. • Being part of a global network not only brings better visibility, but also a recognition of the importance of the observations made at your station. • This in turn can bring better support, either funding or logistical support. • GCW promotes the exchange of knowledge and data, so GCW stations may see broader use of their data and products.