GILDED AGE PROGRESSIVE ERA Gilded Age Gilded cheap

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GILDED AGE – PROGRESSIVE ERA

GILDED AGE – PROGRESSIVE ERA

Gilded Age � Gilded – cheap center covered w/ thin layer of gold (Mark

Gilded Age � Gilded – cheap center covered w/ thin layer of gold (Mark Twain) � Gov’t followed Laissez – Faire policies � 1877 -1900

Presidents of the Gilded Age Rutherford Hayes � Republican � Ended Reconstruction � Reformed

Presidents of the Gilded Age Rutherford Hayes � Republican � Ended Reconstruction � Reformed Spoils System

Presidents of the Gilded Age James A Garfield � Republican � Killed by a

Presidents of the Gilded Age James A Garfield � Republican � Killed by a lawyer, Charles Guiteau

Presidents of the Gilded Age Chester Arthur � Republican � Created Civil Service Commission

Presidents of the Gilded Age Chester Arthur � Republican � Created Civil Service Commission � Check qualifications

Presidents of the Gilded Age Grover Cleveland � Democrat � Gov’t control over RR

Presidents of the Gilded Age Grover Cleveland � Democrat � Gov’t control over RR

Presidents of the Gilded Age Benjamin Harrison � Republican � Sherman Anti Trust Act

Presidents of the Gilded Age Benjamin Harrison � Republican � Sherman Anti Trust Act � Country begins a Depression

Presidents of the Gilded Age Grover Cleveland � Democrat � Stops Pullman Strike �

Presidents of the Gilded Age Grover Cleveland � Democrat � Stops Pullman Strike � Only Prez elected twice not in a row!

Presidents of the Gilded Age William Mc. Kinley � Republican � Increases US Tariffs

Presidents of the Gilded Age William Mc. Kinley � Republican � Increases US Tariffs � Supported the Gold Standard

Presidents of the Gilded Age William Mc. Kinley � Spanish – American War �

Presidents of the Gilded Age William Mc. Kinley � Spanish – American War � Annexation of Hawaii � Killed during 2 nd term – Leon Czolgosz

Progressive Era 1890 -1920 � A variety of reforms were enacted at all levels

Progressive Era 1890 -1920 � A variety of reforms were enacted at all levels � Many Progressives believed that political action and reform were required for progress in society. �

The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs Progressives were not a single unified movement. Their

The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs Progressives were not a single unified movement. Their efforts fell into four categories: Social Reform Moral Economic Reform Political Reform

MUCKRAKERS � � Journalists that exposed turn of the century problems such as illegal

MUCKRAKERS � � Journalists that exposed turn of the century problems such as illegal business activities, putrid food, quack medicines, squalid living conditions, dangerous working conditions, etc. The uncovering of these awful truths led progressives to demand changes.

Economic Reform � Economic Reformers sought to curb the power and influence of wealthy

Economic Reform � Economic Reformers sought to curb the power and influence of wealthy interests. » Monopolies » Trusts » Gap between Rich and Poor

Sherman Antitrust Act � Enacted in 1890 � Effort by Congress to end trusts

Sherman Antitrust Act � Enacted in 1890 � Effort by Congress to end trusts � Ineffective due to lack of enforcement

Clayton Antitrust Act � Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 � Spelled out

Clayton Antitrust Act � Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 � Spelled out specific activities businesses could NOT do � Aide to Union Strikes now Legal!

Federal Reserve System � Central bank of the US � Divided nation into 12

Federal Reserve System � Central bank of the US � Divided nation into 12 regions each w/ its own Federal Reserve Bank

Federal Reserve System � Regulates Amount of money in circulation � Sets interest rates

Federal Reserve System � Regulates Amount of money in circulation � Sets interest rates � Regulates how much a bank can lend

16 TH AMENDMENT – CONGRESS CAN LEVY INCOME TAXES

16 TH AMENDMENT – CONGRESS CAN LEVY INCOME TAXES

Ida Tarbell � � � History of Standard Oil Exposed the practices of Big

Ida Tarbell � � � History of Standard Oil Exposed the practices of Big Business

Social Reform Government should be given expanded powers so that it could become more

Social Reform Government should be given expanded powers so that it could become more active in improving the lives of its citizens.

Social Reform Examples 1. Women’s rights � Suffrage (voting) � Owning Property � Divorce

Social Reform Examples 1. Women’s rights � Suffrage (voting) � Owning Property � Divorce � Clothing � Birth Control

Women’s Reform Leaders � Susan B Anthony – activist who worked towards gaining suffrage

Women’s Reform Leaders � Susan B Anthony – activist who worked towards gaining suffrage for women �Created National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

Women’s Reform Leaders � Florence Kelley – activist who worked towards gaining better working

Women’s Reform Leaders � Florence Kelley – activist who worked towards gaining better working conditions

Women’s Reform Leaders � Alice Paul – radical activist who worked towards gaining suffrage

Women’s Reform Leaders � Alice Paul – radical activist who worked towards gaining suffrage for women �Created Congressional Union (CU): wanted an Amendment giving Women right to vote

19 th Amendment � 1919 th 19 Congress passes the Amendment granting women the

19 th Amendment � 1919 th 19 Congress passes the Amendment granting women the right to vote.

Social Reform Examples 2. Protection of the Environment �Antiquities Act of 1906 �Allows President

Social Reform Examples 2. Protection of the Environment �Antiquities Act of 1906 �Allows President to designate National Monuments �Protect and Preserve Wildlife Areas

Social Reform Examples 3. Tenement Life Over Crowding of the Cities Poor Living Conditions

Social Reform Examples 3. Tenement Life Over Crowding of the Cities Poor Living Conditions Unsanitary Conditions

Jacob Riis � � “How the Other Half Lives “ Exposed horrible living conditions

Jacob Riis � � “How the Other Half Lives “ Exposed horrible living conditions in tenements

Social Reform Examples 4. Unsafe working conditions and Child Labor – Fewer Hours –

Social Reform Examples 4. Unsafe working conditions and Child Labor – Fewer Hours – Higher Wages – Safer Factories – Unions

� The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory operated on the top 3 floors of the 10

� The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory operated on the top 3 floors of the 10 story Asch Building in New York City

 • In 1911, Unsafe working conditions lead to a deadly fire � Notice

• In 1911, Unsafe working conditions lead to a deadly fire � Notice that the tallest ladders owned by the fire department only reach the 6 th floor

� Rather than burn alive in the swift moving fire, many women jump from

� Rather than burn alive in the swift moving fire, many women jump from windows

� This is actually a photo of the building after the fire! Note how

� This is actually a photo of the building after the fire! Note how there is very little damage on the outside of the building

� � � Eight months after the fire, a jury acquitted the factory owners,

� � � Eight months after the fire, a jury acquitted the factory owners, of any wrong doing. Twenty-three individual civil suits were brought against the owners of the Asch building. On March 11, 1913, three years after the fire, the owners settled. They paid 75 dollars per life lost. This tragedy led to a push for comprehensive safety and workers compensation laws.

Social Reform Examples 5. Safer Medicines � Restriction of Harmful Drugs � Proper Labeling

Social Reform Examples 5. Safer Medicines � Restriction of Harmful Drugs � Proper Labeling � Government Approval of Future Drugs/Medicines

Patent Medicines � Medicines at the turn of the century did not require a

Patent Medicines � Medicines at the turn of the century did not require a prescription. • Making exaggerated claims, they were used for a variety of ailments. • Many contained dangerous ingredients.

Cocaine was a common ingredient – even for children's medicines

Cocaine was a common ingredient – even for children's medicines

Notice it's from the makers of Bayer Aspirin. . .

Notice it's from the makers of Bayer Aspirin. . .

Social Reform Examples 6. Safer Food � Government Inspection of Food � Proper Labeling

Social Reform Examples 6. Safer Food � Government Inspection of Food � Proper Labeling � Cleanliness Have you read “The Jungle”? yuck.

The Jungle Written by Upton Sinclair � Talks about the horrors of the meat

The Jungle Written by Upton Sinclair � Talks about the horrors of the meat packing industry �

Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 Created Food and Drug Administration, responsibility of

Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 Created Food and Drug Administration, responsibility of testing all foods and drugs destined for human consumption The requirement for prescriptions from licensed physicians before a patient could purchase certain drugs The requirement of label warnings on habit-forming drugs.

Meat Inspection Act of 1906 All animals were required to pass an inspection by

Meat Inspection Act of 1906 All animals were required to pass an inspection by the FDA prior to slaughter All carcasses were subject to a postmortem inspection Cleanliness standards were established for slaughterhouses and processing plants.

Social Reform Examples 7. Civil Rights Movement African Americans were still fighting for basic

Social Reform Examples 7. Civil Rights Movement African Americans were still fighting for basic rights guaranteed them in the Constitution

Problems African Americans fought Against � Voter Restrictions �Poll Tax – Pay a fee

Problems African Americans fought Against � Voter Restrictions �Poll Tax – Pay a fee to vote �Literacy Test – prove you could read & write to vote �Grandfather Clause – exempts a group of people from obeying a law provided they met certain conditions before law was passed

Problems African Americans fought Against � Jim Crow Laws – System of laws that

Problems African Americans fought Against � Jim Crow Laws – System of laws that segregated public services by race

Problems African Americans fought Against � Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal” �Supreme

Problems African Americans fought Against � Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal” �Supreme Court ruled against Homer Plessy saying segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal

Problems African Americans fought Against � Lynching – mob’s illegal seizure & execution of

Problems African Americans fought Against � Lynching – mob’s illegal seizure & execution of a person, usually by hanging

African American Leaders � Booker T. Washington – encouraged African Am. To become educated

African American Leaders � Booker T. Washington – encouraged African Am. To become educated & learn a trade

African American Leaders � WEB Du. Bois – encouraged African Am. To attend college

African American Leaders � WEB Du. Bois – encouraged African Am. To attend college & become leaders; Also started NAACP

African American Leaders � NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

African American Leaders � NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People �Worked through courts to gain equal rights for African Am.

Moral Reform Many felt the Morals of our society were at the root of

Moral Reform Many felt the Morals of our society were at the root of many turn of the century problems. - Moral Reformers sought to promote Moral Improvements: • • • End Prostitution End Gambling End Drunkenness Education for Children Americanization and Restriction of Immigrants

Political Reform � Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt so that they

Political Reform � Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt so that they can competently handle an expanded role. Political Reformers demanded Political Honesty and Accountability � Patronage/Spoils System � Only Politicians can introduce bills � Only Legislatures can pass laws � Only Courts can remove corrupt officials � Political Machines � Bribery

Patronage � The giving of jobs or other political favors to supporters – even

Patronage � The giving of jobs or other political favors to supporters – even if they are not qualified � Even Presidents did it! …until…

Lincoln Steffens � � � “Shame of the Cities” Exposed big city political corruption

Lincoln Steffens � � � “Shame of the Cities” Exposed big city political corruption

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � Party leaders chose candidates for state & local offices

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � Party leaders chose candidates for state & local offices AFTER � Direct Primaries – Voters select their party’s candidates

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � State legislature chose US Senators AFTER � 17 th

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � State legislature chose US Senators AFTER � 17 th Amendment – US Senators are elected by popular vote

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � Only members of state legislature can introduce bills AFTER

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � Only members of state legislature can introduce bills AFTER � Initiative – Voters can put bills before the legislation

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � Only legislatures pass laws AFTER � Referendum – voters

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � Only legislatures pass laws AFTER � Referendum – voters can vote on bills directly � DE voters control raising school taxes

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � Only courts or legislature can remove corrupt officials AFTER

Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE � Only courts or legislature can remove corrupt officials AFTER � Recall – voters can remove elected officials from office

Progressive Political Reforms

Progressive Political Reforms

Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt � Republican � Youngest Prez � Took office after Mc.

Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt � Republican � Youngest Prez � Took office after Mc. Kinley is shot

Progressive Presidents � � Led the fight to dissolve 40 monopolies as a “trust

Progressive Presidents � � Led the fight to dissolve 40 monopolies as a “trust buster“ “Square Deal" promised a fair shake for the average citizen, including: regulation of railroad rates and pure foods and drugs. � promotion of the conservation movement, emphasizing efficient use of natural resources. �

Progressive Presidents William H Taft � Republican � Promised to continue TR’s ideas �

Progressive Presidents William H Taft � Republican � Promised to continue TR’s ideas � Tried but lacked TR’s energy

Progressive Presidents � � Initiated 80 antitrust suits Submitted to the states amendments for

Progressive Presidents � � Initiated 80 antitrust suits Submitted to the states amendments for a Federal income tax and the direct election of Senators.

Progressive Presidents � � � Progressive Republicans are upset w/ Taft & want TR

Progressive Presidents � � � Progressive Republicans are upset w/ Taft & want TR back TR, loses nomination so he creates his own political party Progressive Party aka Bull Moose Party

Election of 1912 Rep – William Taft � Dem – Woodrow Wilson � Prog

Election of 1912 Rep – William Taft � Dem – Woodrow Wilson � Prog – Teddy Roosevelt �

Wilson Wins!!!! Candidate Popular Vote Electoral Vote Wilson 6, 296, 547 435 Roosevelt 4,

Wilson Wins!!!! Candidate Popular Vote Electoral Vote Wilson 6, 296, 547 435 Roosevelt 4, 118, 571 88 Taft 3, 486, 720 8 Other 1, 135, 637 None

Progressive Presidents Woodrow Wilson � Democrat � Continued Progressivism � Prez during WWI

Progressive Presidents Woodrow Wilson � Democrat � Continued Progressivism � Prez during WWI

Progressive Presidents � � 16 th Amendment – Congress can levy income taxes 17

Progressive Presidents � � 16 th Amendment – Congress can levy income taxes 17 th Amendment – Direct Election of Senators 18 th Amendment – Prohibition of Alcohol 19 th Amendment – Women’s Suffrage