GILDED AGE CULTURE Unit VIC AP United States

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GILDED AGE CULTURE Unit VIC AP United States History

GILDED AGE CULTURE Unit VIC AP United States History

Gilded Age Religion ► American Christians focused values toward consequences of industrialization and urbanization

Gilded Age Religion ► American Christians focused values toward consequences of industrialization and urbanization § Social Gospel ► Increases § Catholics, Jews ► New Christian Sects § Christian Science ► Spiritual life over material § Pentecostals ► Baptism tongues in spirit; speaking in § Salvation Army § Jehovah’s Witnesses ► Millenialist

Temperance and Reform Alcohol and vices blamed for urban problems ► Regulating Morality ►

Temperance and Reform Alcohol and vices blamed for urban problems ► Regulating Morality ► § Comstock Law (1873) ► Temperance Organizations § National Prohibition Party (1869) § Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) (1874) ► Frances E. Willard § Antisaloon League (1893) § Carrie Nation ► “Hatchetations” ► Reform Groups § Planned parenthood § Humane societies § Anti-prostitution

Gilded Age Academics ► Educational Reforms § Compulsory Education ► Most states required 8

Gilded Age Academics ► Educational Reforms § Compulsory Education ► Most states required 8 -14 year olds to attend schools § Kindergartens § Public Education ► Dramatic increase in high schools and adult education ► Comprehensive education ► Led to 90% literacy rate § Colleges and Universities ► Increased through federal legislation and philanthropy ► Science § Darwin and Natural Selection (Evolution) § Technological Innovation ► Social Sciences § Scientific method applied to behavioral sciences § Development of psychology, sociology, political science ► William James’s Principles of Psychology

Gilded Age Entertainment and Leisure ► Causes § Urbanization, less working hours, advertisements ►

Gilded Age Entertainment and Leisure ► Causes § Urbanization, less working hours, advertisements ► Vaudevilles § Popularized with family-friendly subjects and material Saloons ► Amusement Parks ► § Coney Island ► Circus § P. T. Barnum ► Sports § Spectator ► Baseball, boxing, football, basketball § Amateur ► Golf, tennis

Realism and Naturalism ► Realism § Objective reality § Depict accurate and true characters

Realism and Naturalism ► Realism § Objective reality § Depict accurate and true characters and settings § Absent of emotional embellishment ► Naturalism § Depiction of objects in natural settings § Time and place accuracy Brooklyn Bridge at Night Edward Willis Redfield 1909

Gilded Age Art ► Ashcan School § Depiction of New York City urban life

Gilded Age Art ► Ashcan School § Depiction of New York City urban life § George Bellows ► James M. Whistler ► Winslow Homer ► Mary Cassatt Both Members of This Club George Bellows 1909

Winslow Homer’s Breezing Up

Winslow Homer’s Breezing Up

George Bellow’s New York

George Bellow’s New York

James Whistler’s Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1 (Whistler’s Mother) (1871)

James Whistler’s Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1 (Whistler’s Mother) (1871)

Mary Cassat’s The Child’s Bath (1893)

Mary Cassat’s The Child’s Bath (1893)

Gilded Age Architecture ► Victorian Influence § Henry Hobson Richardson ► Louis Sullivan §

Gilded Age Architecture ► Victorian Influence § Henry Hobson Richardson ► Louis Sullivan § “Father of Skyscrapers” § “form follows function” ► Frank Lloyd Wright § “organic architecture” ► Foursquare Homes

Richardson’s Trinity Church

Richardson’s Trinity Church

Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater

Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater

Foursquare Home

Foursquare Home

Gilded Age Press and Literature ► Press § Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World &

Gilded Age Press and Literature ► Press § Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World & William Randolph Hearst ► Sensationalism and scandals § Magazines ► Editorial style based on investigative journalism ► Forum ► Non-Fiction § Toward facts, investigations, American expansion § Helen Hunt Jackson’s A Century of Dishonor (1881) § Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power on History (1890) § Josiah Strong’s Our Country ► Literature § Authors focused on character development and realism over plot § Lewis Wallace ► Ben-Hur: A Tale of Christ § Mark Twain ► The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ► The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today § Stephen Crane ► The Red Badge of Courage § Jack London ► The Call of the Wild; White Fang

Gilded Age Music ► Mainstream Music § John Philip Sousa – The March King

Gilded Age Music ► Mainstream Music § John Philip Sousa – The March King ► The Washington Post ► Stars and Stripes Forever ► Semper Fidelis § Screamers – Circus Marches ► Entry of the ► Circus Bee ► Gladiators Popular Music § Ragtime ► Originated from black communities combining African syncopation and classical music ► Scott Joplin § Maple Leaf Rag § The Entertainer § The Blues ► Originated c. 1890 from Deep South based on ballads among slaves ► Lyrics mostly soulful and melancholy