- Slides: 22
Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives I CAN identify a gerund and understand when to use one. I CAN identify an infinitive and understand when to use one. I CAN identify participles and understand when to use one. CCSS. ELA-Literacy. L. 8. 1. a Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
Overview What is a gerund? When to use a gerund? What is an infinitive? When do you use an infinitive? What is a participle? When do you use a participle? There are three types of verbals in English grammar: • participles (also known as -ing forms and -en forms) • gerunds (also known as -ing forms) • infinitives (ex. to go)
Examples Sailing around the world is an adventure. I can’t afford to go on vacation this year. Sailing = gerund to go = infinitive
What is a Gerund? The gerund is a verb to which ‘-ing’ is added It looks like a continuous tense, but it is used differently Example: Eating in class is not allowed. (gerund) It is a gerund because it is the subject of the sentence Versus: He was eating in class. (past continuous verb tense)
When to Use a Gerund? The gerund as a ‘verbal noun’ – a noun that looks like a verb Example: Smoking in public areas should be banned. Example: He quit smoking cigars when he was 25.
When to Use a Gerund? After certain verbs: (these are the most common ones) To admit, to practice To avoid, to quit To consider, to remember To deny, to stop To enjoy, to understand To finish, to waste To involve, to keep To mean
When to Use a Gerund? After prepositions: Example: Besides swimming, we didn’t do much. Example: I’m thinking of quitting my job. Example: He looked at her without saying a word.
What is a Participle? A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective to modify nouns and pronouns. The following sentence contains both a present and a past participle: The children, crying and exhausted, were guided out of the collapsed house. Crying is a present participle, formed by adding -ing to the present form of the verb (cry). Exhausted is a past participle, formed by adding -ed to the present form of the verb (exhaust). Both participles modify the subject, children.
What is a Participle? All present participles end in -ing. The past participles of all regular verbs end in -ed. Irregular verbs, however, have various past participle endings—for instance, thrown, ridden, built, and gone. A participial phrase is made up of a participle and its modifiers. A participle may be followed by an object, an adverb, a prepositional phrase, an adverb clause, or any combination of these.
Participle Examples For example, in the following sentence the participial phrase consists of a present participle (holding), an object (the torch), and an adverb (steadily): Holding the torch steadily, Jenny approached the monster. In the next sentence, the participial phrase consists of a present participle (making), an object (a great ring), and a prepositional phrase (of white light): Jenny waved the torch over head, making a great ring of white light.
What is an Infinitive? To sneeze, to smash, to cry, to shriek, to jump, to dunk, to read, to eat, to slurp—all of these are infinitives. An infinitive will almost always begin with to followed by the simple form of the verb, like this: The verb itself preceded by ‘to’ = infinitive (To + Verb = Infinitive) Important Note: Because an infinitive is not a verb, you cannot add s, ed, or ing to the end. Ever! Infinitives can also be the verb itself Examples: To be honest, I love learning English. I would rather help my mother. Go and check if I left the oven on.
When to Use a ‘to Infinitive’? After certain verbs we use the ‘to infinitive’ (most common ones, not all): To appear, to manage To arrange, to offer To bother, to plan To choose, to refuse To decide, to seem To fail, to tend To hope, to volunteer To learn, to wish
When to Use a ‘to Infinitive’? After adjectives: Example: It was difficult to see through the fog. Example: She is happy to help us. Example: It is easy to bake a cake.
How the Infinitive Functions? Infinitives can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Look at these examples: To sleep is the only thing Eli wants after his double shift waiting tables at the neighborhood café. To sleep functions as a noun because it is the subject of the sentence. No matter how fascinating the biology dissection is, Emanuel turns his head and refuses to look. To look functions as a noun because it is the direct object for the verb refuses. Wherever Melissa goes, she always brings a book to read in case conversation lags or she has a long wait. To read functions as an adjective because it modifies book. Richard braved the icy rain to throw the smelly squid eyeball stew into the apartment dumpster. To throw functions as an adverb because it explains why Richard braved the inclement weather.
When Infinitives Are Not ‘To + Verb’ An infinitive will lose its to when it follows certain verbs. These verbs are feel, hear, help, let, make, see, and watch. The pattern looks like this: Special Verb + Direct Object + Infinitive - to Here are some examples: As soon as Theodore felt the rain splatter on his hot, dusty skin, he knew that he had a good excuse to return the lawn mower to the garage. Felt = special verb; rain = direct object; splatter = infinitive minus the to. When Danny heard the alarm clock buzz, he slapped the snooze button and burrowed under the covers for ten more minutes of sleep. Heard = special verb; alarm clock = direct object; buzz = infinitive minus the to. Although Dr. Ribley spent an extra class period helping us understand logarithms, we still bombed the test. Helping = special verb; us = direct object; understand = infinitive minus the to. Because Freddie had never touched a snake, I removed the cover of the cage and let him pet Squeeze, my seven-foot python. Let = special verb; him = direct object; pet = infinitive minus the to.
More Examples… Since Jose had destroyed Sylvia's spotless kitchen while baking chocolate-broccoli muffins, she made him take her out for an expensive dinner. Made = special verb; him = direct object; take = infinitive minus the to. I said a prayer when I saw my friends mount the Kumba, a frightening roller coaster that twists and rolls like a giant sea serpent. Saw = special verb; my friends = direct object; mount = infinitive minus the to. Hoping to lose her fear of flying, Rachel went to the airport to watch passenger planes take off and land, but even this exercise did not convince her that jets were safe. Watch = special verb; passenger planes = direct object; take, land = infinitives minus the to.
When to Use an Infinitive? After modals (type of verb) we use the infinitive: Can Could Will Would Shall May Might Must Should
Gerund or Infinitive? Gerund is used for things that have already happened Example: He began playing baseball last year. Infinitive is used for things that can (could) still happen Example: It is still possible to win.
Gerund or Infinitive? Many verbs can be preceded by both the gerund and the infinitive: To allow, to begin To continue, to forget To hate/love, to intend To like, to mean To need, to prefer To remember, to start/stop To try/to want
Gerund and Infinitive Practice You will complete a packet that allows you to practice with gerunds and infinitives The packet will be due next week Today we will practice identifying gerunds and infinitives
Exercise: Identifying Verbals decide if the word or For each of the following sentences, phrase in italics is a participle, a gerund, or an infinitive. 1. The children's singing and laughing woke me up. 2. Jenny likes to dance in the rain. 3. There are many ways of breaking a heart. 4. A broken heart will mend over time. 5. "Happiness is having a large, loving, caring, close-knit family in another city. " (George Burns) 6. I believe that laughing is the best calorie burner. 7. "I don't want to achieve immortality through my work. I want to achieve it through not dying. " (Woody Allen) 8. "I don't want to achieve immortality through my work. I want to achieve it through not dying. " (Woody Allen) 9. "It is not enough to succeed. Others must fail. " (Gore Vidal) 10. Succeeding is not enough. Others must fail.
Answers 1. gerunds 2. infinitive 3. gerund 4. (past) participle 5. (present) participles 6. gerund 7. infinitives 8. gerund 9. infinitive 10. gerund